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Oviedo, Angela Maria; Ziveri, Patrizia; Álvarez, Marta; Tanhua, Toste (2017): Coccolithophore distribution in the Mediterranean Sea during spring 2011 (M84/3 cruise). PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Oviedo, AM et al. (2015): Is coccolithophore distribution in the Mediterranean Sea related to seawater carbonate chemistry? Ocean Science, 11(1), 13-32,

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The Mediterranean Sea is considered a "hot spot" for climate change, being characterized by oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic waters and rapidly increasing seasurface temperature and changing carbonate chemistry. Coccolithophores are considered a dominant phytoplankton group in these waters. As marine calcifying organisms they are expected to respond to the ongoing changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. We provide here a description of the springtime coccolithophore distribution in the Mediterranean Sea and relate this to a broad set of in situ-measured environmental variables. Samples were taken during the R/V Meteor (M84/3) oceanographic cruise in April 2011, between 0 and 100 m water depth from 28 stations. Total diatom and silicoflagellate cell concentrations are also presented. Our results highlight the importance of seawater carbonate chemistry, especially [CO3]2- but also [PO4]3- in unraveling the distribution of heterococcolithophores, the most abundant coccolithophore life phase. Holo- and heterococcolithophores respond differently to environmental factors. For instance, changes in heterococcolithophore assemblages were best linked to the combination of [CO3]2-, pH, and salinity (rho = 0.57), although salinity might be not functionally related to coccolithophore assemblage distribution. Holococcolithophores, on the other hand, showed higher abundances and species diversity in oligotrophic areas (best fit, rho = 0.32 for nutrients), thriving in nutrient-depleted waters. Clustering of heterococcolithophores revealed three groups of species sharing more than 65% similarities. These clusters could be assigned to the eastern and western basins and deeper layers (below 50 m), respectively. In addition, the species Gephyrocapsa oceanica, G. muellerae, and Emiliania huxleyi morphotype B/C are spatially distributed together and trace the influx of Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the present work emphasize the importance of considering holo- and heterococcolithophores separately when analyzing changes in species assemblages and diversity. Our findings suggest that coccolithophores are a main phytoplankton group in the entire Mediterranean Sea and can dominate over siliceous phytoplankton. They have life stages that are expected to respond differently to the variability in seawater carbonate chemistry and nutrient concentrations.
Median Latitude: 36.604261 * Median Longitude: 16.150869 * South-bound Latitude: 33.580000 * West-bound Longitude: -5.751330 * North-bound Latitude: 41.249830 * East-bound Longitude: 35.172500
Date/Time Start: 2011-04-06T11:57:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-04-08T22:57:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: 0.0 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 103.1 m
M84/3_287 (M287) * Latitude: 37.666670 * Longitude: 25.599830 * Date/Time: 2011-04-06T11:27:00 * Elevation: -799.0 m * Location: Aegean Sea * Campaign: M84/3 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
M84/3_288 (M288) * Latitude: 35.649830 * Longitude: 26.216670 * Date/Time: 2011-04-07T02:22:00 * Elevation: -2248.0 m * Location: Aegean Sea * Campaign: M84/3 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
M84/3_291 (M291) * Latitude: 34.066500 * Longitude: 32.999830 * Date/Time: 2011-04-08T21:28:00 * Elevation: -2454.0 m * Location: Eastern Basin * Campaign: M84/3 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
Cell abundance in cell/l.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEventTanhua, Toste
2Latitude of eventLatitudeTanhua, Toste
3Longitude of eventLongitudeTanhua, Toste
4Elevation of eventElevationmTanhua, Toste
5DATE/TIMEDate/TimeTanhua, TosteGeocode
6DEPTH, waterDepth watermTanhua, TosteGeocode
7Pressure, waterPressdbarOviedo, Angela Maria
8Emiliania huxleyiE. huxleyi#/lOviedo, Angela Mariatotal
9Emiliania huxleyiE. huxleyi#/lOviedo, Angela MariaType A
10Emiliania huxleyiE. huxleyi#/lOviedo, Angela MariaType B/C
11Gephyrocapsa ornataG. ornata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
12Gephyrocapsa ericsoniiG. ericsonii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
13Gephyrocapsa oceanicaG. oceanica#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
14Gephyrocapsa muelleraeG. muellerae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
15Reticulofenestra parvulaR. parvula#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
16Calcidiscus leptoporusC. leptoporus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
17Hayaster perplexusH. perplexus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
18Umbilicosphaera sibogae var. sibogaeU. sibogae var. sibogae#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaplus U. sibogae var. foliosa
19Umbilicosphaera hulburtianaU. hulburtiana#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
20Pleurochrysis carteraeP. carterae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
21Helicosphaera carteriH. carteri#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
22Helicosphaera pavimentumH. pavimentum#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
23Papposphaera lepidaP. lepida#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
24Papposphaera sp.Papposphaera sp.#/lOviedo, Angela MariaType 5. (Cros and Fortuno 2002)
25Pontosphaera japonicaP. japonica#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
26Scyphosphaera apsteiniiS. apsteinii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
27Palusphaera vandeliiP. vandelii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
28Rhabdosphaera xiphosR. xiphos#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
29Rhabdosphaera clavigera var. clavigeraR. clavigera var. clavigera#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaplus Rhabdosphaera clavigera var. stylifera
30Discosphaera tubiferaD. tubifera#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
31Anacanthoica acanthosA. acanthos#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
32Acanthoica quattrospinaA. quattrospina#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
33Acanthoica biscayensisA. biscayensis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
34Cyrtosphaera lecaliaeC. lecaliae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
35Algirosphaera robustaA. robusta#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
36Algirosphaera cucullataA. cucullata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
37Anoplosolenia brasiliensisA. brasiliensis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
38Calciosolenia murrayiC. murrayi#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
39Alisphaera capulataA. capulata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
40Alisphaera extentaA. extenta#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
41Alisphaera gaudiiA. gaudii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
42Alisphaera ordinataA. ordinata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
43Alisphaera unicornisA. unicornis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
44Calciopappus rigidusC. rigidus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
45Calciopappus caudatusC. caudatus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
46Michaelsaria elegansM. elegans#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaplus Michaelsaria adriaticus
47Ophiaster formosusO. formosus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
48Ophiaster hydroideusO. hydroideus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
49Coronosphaera mediterraneaC. mediterranea#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
50Coronosphaera binodataC. binodata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
51Syracosphaera amplioraS. ampliora#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
52Syracosphaera corollaS. corolla#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
53Syracosphaera pulchraS. pulchra#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
54Syracosphaera histricaS. histrica#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
55Syracosphaera protrudensS. protrudens#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
56Syracosphaera bannockiiS. bannockii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
57Syracosphaera pirusS. pirus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
58Syracosphaera nodosaS. nodosa#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
59Syracosphaera ossaS. ossa#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
60Syracosphaera anthosS. anthos#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
61Syracosphaera delicataS. delicata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
62Syracosphaera rotulaS. rotula#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
63Syracosphaera dilatataS. dilatata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
64Syracosphaera tumularisS. tumularis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
65Syracosphaera nanaS. nana#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
66Syracosphaera molischiiS. molischii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
67Syracosphaera borealisS. borealis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
68Syracosphaera marginiporataS. marginiporata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
69Syracosphaera noroiticaS. noroitica#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
70Syracosphaera prolongataS. prolongata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
71Syracosphaera laminaS. lamina#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
72Syracosphaera sp.Syracosphaera sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaaff. to S. orbiculus
73Syracosphaera arethusaeS. arethusae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria= Syracosphaera sp Type D from Kleijne 1993
74Syracosphaera spp.Syracosphaera spp.#/lOviedo, Angela Marianot recognized species
75Polycrater galapagensisP. galapagensis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
76Polycrater spp.Polycrater spp.#/lOviedo, Angela Marianot recognized species
77Umbellosphaera tenuisU. tenuis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
78Florisphaera profundaF. profunda#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
79Gladiolithus flabellatusG. flabellatus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
80Ceratolithus cristatusC. cristatus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
81Coccolithophoridae sp.Coccolith sp.#/lOviedo, Angela MariaCoccolithophore sp. 3 (Cross and Miguel 2001)
82Kataspinifera baumanniiK. baumannii#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaundescribed Heterococcolith A in Young et al. 2003
83Ericiolus spp.Ericiolus spp.#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
84HeterococcolithophoresHeterococcolithophores#/lOviedo, Angela MariaUnknown
85Anthosphaera periperforataA. periperforata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
86Anthosphaera lafourcadiiA. lafourcadii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
87Anthosphaera origamiA. origami#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaformer Anthosphaera sp. Type A from Cross and Fortuno 2002
88Anthosphaera sp.Anthosphaera sp.#/lOviedo, Angela MariaType C (Cros and Fortuno, 2002)
89Syracosphaera molischiiS. molischii#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Anthosphaera fragaria
90Calcidiscus leptoporus ssp. leptoporusC. leptoporus ssp. leptoporus#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
91Calcidiscus leptoporus ssp. quadriperforatusC. leptoporus ssp. quadriperforatus#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
92Corisphaera gracilisC. gracilis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
93Corisphaera sp.Corisphaera sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Mariasp. Type A (from Kleijne 1991)
94Corisphaera strigilisC. strigilis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
95Corisphaera tyrrheniensisC. tyrrheniensis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
96Coccolithus pelagicus ssp. braarudiiC. pelagicus ssp. braarudii#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
97Calicasphaera concavaC. concava#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
98Calyptrolithina divergensC. divergens#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaplus Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa
99Calyptrolithina multiporaC. multipora#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
100Acanthoica quattrospinaA. quattrospina#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
101Syracosphaera histricaS. histrica#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Calyptrolithophora papillifera
102Syracosphaera pulchraS. pulchra#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL oblonga type = Caliptrosphaera oblonga
103Syracosphaera pulchraS. pulchra#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL pirus type = Caliptrosphaera pirus
104Syracosphaera bannockiiS. bannockii#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Sphaerocalyptra bannockii
105Syracosphaera anthosS. anthos#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Periphyllophora mirabilis
106Syracosphaera arethusaeS. arethusae#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Homozygosphaera arethusae
107Syracosphaera nanaS. nana#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
108Homozygosphaera spinosaH. spinosa#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
109Homozygosphaera triarchaH. triarcha#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
110Homozygosphaera vercelliH. vercelli#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
111Helladosphaera corniferaH. cornifera#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
112Helicosphaera carteriH. carteri#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL solid = Helicosphaera HOL catilliferus Type
113Calyptrosphaera cialdiiC. cialdii#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
114Calyptrosphaera dentataC. dentata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
115Calyptrosphaera sphaeroideaC. sphaeroidea#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL
116Calyptrosphaera heimdalaeC. heimdalae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
117Calyptrosphaera sp.Calyptrosphaera sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
118Scyphosphaera apsteiniiS. apsteinii#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL = Syracolithus schilleri
119Sphaerocalyptra quadridentataS. quadridentata#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
120Sphaerocalyptra adenensisS. adenensis#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
121Sphaerocalyptra sp.Sphaerocalyptra sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Mariasp. 1 ( from Cros and Fortuno 2002)
122Sphaerocalyptra sp.Sphaerocalyptra sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Mariasp. 3 ( from Cros and Fortuno 2002)
123Sphaerocalyptra sp.Sphaerocalyptra sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Mariasp. 6 ( from Cros and Fortuno 2002)
124Syracolithus sp.Syracolithus sp.#/lOviedo, Angela MariaType A (from Kleijne 1991)
125Coronosphaera mediterraneaC. mediterranea#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL hellenica type = Zygosphaera gracillima
126Coronosphaera mediterraneaC. mediterranea#/lOviedo, Angela MariaHOL gracillima type = Calyptrolithophora gracillima
127Gliscolithus amitakarenaeG. amitakarenae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
128Poritectolithus maximusP. maximus#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
129Poricalyptra gaarderaeP. gaarderae#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
130Zygosphaera amoenaZ. amoena#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
131HolococcolithophoraHolococcolithophora#/lOviedo, Angela Mariaunknown
132HeterococcolithophoresHeterococcolithophores#/lOviedo, Angela Mariatotal
133HolococcolithophoraHolococcolithophora#/lOviedo, Angela Mariatotal
134CoccolithophoresCoccolithophores#/lOviedo, Angela Mariatotal
135ConfidenceConfOviedo, Angela Marialower, Coinfidence interval for coccolithophore abundance (cells/L)
136ConfidenceConfOviedo, Angela Mariaupper, Coinfidence interval for coccolithophore abundance (cells/L)
137DiatomsDiatoms#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
138DinoflagellatesDinofl#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
139Meringosphaera mediterraneaM. mediterranea#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
140Dictyota sp.Dictyota sp.#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
141PhytoplanktonPhytopl#/lOviedo, Angela MariaOther phytoplankton with scales
142Cells, totalCells tot#/lOviedo, Angela Maria
143Number of speciesSpec No#Oviedo, Angela MariaHeterococcolithophores
144DiversityH(S)Oviedo, Angela MariaHeterococcolithophores
145Number of speciesSpec No#Oviedo, Angela MariaHolococcolithophores
146DiversityH(S)Oviedo, Angela MariaHolococcolithophores
11340 data points

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