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Lee, Joey; Christen, Andreas; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran (2017): Mobile measurements of carbon dioxide mixing ratios and emissions in the City of Vancouver, BC, Canada. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.872702, Supplement to: Lee, J et al. (2017): A mobile sensor network to map carbon dioxide emissions in urban environments. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10, 645-665, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-645-2017

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Abstract:
A method for directly measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using a mobile sensor network in cities at fine spatial resolution was developed and tested. First, a compact, mobile system was built using an infrared gas analyzer combined with open-source hardware to control, georeference and log measurements of CO2 mixing ratios on vehicles (car, bikes). Second, two measurement campaigns, one in summer and one in winter (heating-season) were carried out. Five mobile sensors were deployed within a 1 x 12.7 km transect across the City of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The sensors were operated for 3.5 hours on pre-defined routes to map CO2 mixing ratios at street level, which was then averaged to 100 x 100 m grids. The grid-averaged CO2 mixing ratios were 417.9 ppm in summer and 442.5 ppm in winter. In both campaigns, mixing ratios were highest in the downtown core and along arterial roads and lowest in parks and well vegetated residential areas. Third, an aerodynamic resistance approach to calculating emissions was used to derive CO2 emissions from the gridded CO2 mixing ratio measurements in conjunction with mixing ratios and fluxes collected from a 28-m tall eddy-covariance tower located within the study area. These measured emissions showed a range of -12 to 226 kg CO2/ha/hr in summer and of -14 to 163 kg CO2/ha/hr in winter, with an average of 35.1 kg CO2 ha/hr (summer) and 25.9 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter). Fourth, an independent emissions inventory was developed for the study area using buildings energy simulations from a previous study and routinely available traffic counts. The emissions inventory for the same area averaged to 22.06 kg CO2/ha/hr (summer) and 28.76 kg CO2/ha/hr (winter) and was used to compare against the measured emissions from the mobile sensor network. The comparison on a grid-by-grid basis showed linearity between CO2 mixing ratios and the emissions inventory (R2 = 0.53 in summer and R2 = 0.47 in winter). 87 % (summer) and 94 % (winter) of measured grid cells show a difference within ±1 order, and 49 % (summer) and 69 % (winter) show an error of less than a factor 2. Although associated with considerable errors at the individual grid cell level, the study demonstrates a promising method of using a network of mobile sensors and an aerodynamic resistance approach to rapidly map greenhouse gases at high spatial resolution across cities. The method could be improved by longer measurements and a refined calculation of the aerodynamic resistance.
Further details:
Crawford, Ben; Christen, Andreas (2009): Processing and quality control procedures. EPiCC Technical Report, 1, 11 pp, hdl:2429/45079
Crawford, Ben; Christen, Andreas (2014): Spatial variability of carbon dioxide in the urban canopy layer and implications for flux measurements. Atmospheric Environment, 98, 308-322, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.052
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 49.247223 * Median Longitude: -123.096262 * South-bound Latitude: 49.215000 * West-bound Longitude: -123.158030 * North-bound Latitude: 49.312810 * East-bound Longitude: -123.063320
Date/Time Start: 2015-05-28T09:30:00 * Date/Time End: 2016-03-18T21:37:42
Comment:
The datasets presented here contain processed and modelled data from two field campaigns in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada, where a total of five mobile sensor systems were operated simultaneously on cars and bikes within a few hours to measure and map ground-level carbon dioxide mixing ratios used to calculate spatially resolved carbon dioxide emissions.
Size:
5 datasets

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