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Stein, Ruediger (2016): Sedimentology of sites 14-141, 41-366, 47-397 and 79-544B. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Stein, R (1984): Zur neogenen Klimaentwicklung in Nordwest-Afrika und Paläo-Ozeanographie im Nordost-Atlantik - Ergebnisse von DSDP-Sites 141, 366, 397 und 544B. Berichte-Reports, Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut der Universität Kiel, 4, 210 pp,

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Along the N-S-transect of DSDP-Sites 5446, 397, 141, and 366, oxygen and carbon isotopes, flux rates of calcium carbonate, terrigenous matter, and biogenic opal, clay minerals and the size distribution of terrigenous partictes were determined in order to assess the ties between atmospheric and oceanic surface and deep-water circulation off northwest Africa during the late Neogene.
During the last 9 m.y., both the paleoceanography in the eastern Atlantic and west African paleodimates were intimately correlated with the evolution of the polar ice sheets as reflected in the benthos d18O curves of the 4 DSDP-Sites. These records make it possible to distinguish six major time intervals which were charaterized by long-term persistent regimes of climatic stability or climatic change. Short-term, "Milankovitch"-type cycles superimpose the long-term climatic evolution and may reflect the chronostratigraphic control fluctuations of the solar insolation persisting back to pre-Pleistocene times.
Relatively stable, warm climates prevailed during the late Tortonian/early Messinean, 9 to 6 m.y., and the early Pliocene, 4.5 to 3.5 m.y. ago. Based on d18O curves, the amplitudes of short-term climatic variation were generally low, and the ice sheets were smaller than during peak Holocene time. Oceanic circulation and resulting paleoproductivity in upwelling zones were insignificant. The strength of dust supplying meridional trade winds was low (3 to 5 m/s), interglacial-style zonal winds near the ITCZ were dominant, as indicated by the high abundance of kaolinite. Phases of fluvial sediment supply were common. Humidity was characteristic of the climate in northwest Africa for the major part of this time.
Major episodes of climatic deterioration in the subtropics occurred in the latest Miocene/early Pliocene, between some 5.6 and 5.2 and between 4.9 and 4.6 m.y. ago, in the late Pliocene, between 3.2 and 2.4 m.y. ago, and again in the Quaternary, near 1 m.y. ago. The episodes were correlated with marked increases of the global ice volume, as revealed by drastic increases of d18O values. They suggest sea-level falls of up to 70 m below the present sea level in the latest Miocene and earliest Pliocene and of 145 m in the latest Pliocene and Quaternary. The climatic changes resulted in strongly enhanced meridional trade winds as suggested by coarser terrigenous grain-sizes, increased mass accumulation rates of eolian dust, and changes in clay-mineral composition from dominantly kaolinite to illite and chlorite. The meridional trade winds reached speeds of 8 to 10 m/s with a maximum near 15 m/s. The enhanced winds probably led t o intensified coastal upwelling as shown by the contemporaneous local increase i n the deposition of biogenic silica and the local depletion of 13C at Site 397. The most drastic environmental changes near 2.4 and 1 m.y. ago coincide with hiatuses which may indicate phases of general erosion due to strongly enhanced deep-water circulation in the northeast At1antic along the northwest African continental margin. The occasional occurrence of quartz grains coarser than 250 µm may suggest ice-rafted debris in sediments off Morocco. During these time intervals the climate in NW-Africa was dominantly arid. Nevertheless, fluvial runoff (and humidity) continued to be important during intermittent warm phases of the short-term climatic cycles.
During the end and the beginning of (inter-) glacial times, fluvial supply of nutrients seems to be the dominant factor, controling phases of enhanced paleoproductivity observed off northwest Africa, whereas during phases of glacial maximum strenger fertility of (increased) coastal upwelling becomes more important.
A long-term evolution of paleoenvironments during the last 40 m.y. is depicted in the sediments of Site 366 and is clearly controlled by the plate tectonic route of this Site. During Oligocene times, Site 366 lay in the center of the equatorial upwelling, as shown by the high content of biogenic silica contributing up to 100 % of the carbonate-free sediment fraction >6 µm. The influence of equatorial upwelling abruptly terminated near 15 m.y. ago, a change in the record exaggerated by a hiatus of about 2 m.y.
Prior to 25 m.y., the terrigenous input at the paleolatitude of Site 366 was restricted t o eolian sediment supply from South Africa by southeasterly trade winds, as shown by dominantly illite and chlorite in the clay fraction and extremely fine-grained terrigenous matter. Near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, Site 366 drifted across the equator into the belt of the northeasterly trade winds, which is inferred from the increased content of kaolinite and coarser grain sizes of the terrigenous sediment fraction.
The clay-mineral and grain-size compositions of Site 366 do not reflect a noteworthy northward shift of the ITCZ during late Miocene and early Pliocene times, i.e. no marked global circulation asymmetry due to the possible absence of a major Northern Hemisphere glaciation (Flohn 1981). This lack of a more northerly position of the ITCZ may result from a bipolar glaciation already existing during late Miocene times, such as also suggested by the evidence of tillites on Iceland and in southern Alaska during those intervals (e.g., Denton & Amstrong 1969, Mudie & Helgason 1983).
Median Latitude: 20.022815 * Median Longitude: -17.631015 * South-bound Latitude: 5.678000 * West-bound Longitude: -23.998500 * North-bound Latitude: 33.766700 * East-bound Longitude: -9.405000
Date/Time Start: 1970-11-05T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1981-04-17T00:00:00
14-141 * Latitude: 19.419300 * Longitude: -23.998500 * Date/Time: 1970-11-05T00:00:00 * Elevation: -4148.0 m * Penetration: 298 m * Recovery: 72.3 m * Location: North Atlantic/DIAPIR * Campaign: Leg14 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 10 cores; 81 m cored; 0 m drilled; 89.3 % recovery
41-366 * Latitude: 5.678000 * Longitude: -19.851300 * Date/Time: 1975-02-22T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2853.0 m * Penetration: 850.5 m * Recovery: 302.8 m * Location: North Atlantic/CONT RISE * Campaign: Leg41 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 53 cores; 499 m cored; 19 m drilled; 60.7 % recovery
47-397 * Latitude: 26.845000 * Longitude: -15.180000 * Date/Time: 1976-03-21T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2900.0 m * Penetration: 1000 m * Recovery: 587 m * Location: North Atlantic/CONT RISE * Campaign: Leg47 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 99 cores; 940 m cored; 41 m drilled; 62.4 % recovery
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Datasets listed in this publication series

  1. Stein, R (2003): Age Model of Site 14-141.
  2. Stein, R (1997): Calcium carbonate content from Hole 14-141.
  3. Stein, R (2003): Sediment silt size fractions of site 14-141, tab A-V,X,XV,XXI.
  4. Stein, R (2005): Stable isotope ratio of benthic foraminifera from Hole 14-141.
  5. Stein, R (2006): Stable isotopes on benthic foraminifera from Hole 14-141.
  6. Stein, R (2003): Age Model of Site 41-366.
  7. Stein, R (2005): Calcium carbonate content from Hole 41-366.
  8. Stein, R (1997): Clay mineralogy of Hole 41-366.
  9. Stein, R (2003): Sediment silt size fractions of site 41-366, tab A-V,X,XV,XXI.
  10. Stein, R (2005): Stable isotope ratio of benthic foraminifera from Hole 41-366.
  11. Stein, R (2006): Stable isotopes on benthic foraminifera from Hole 41-366.
  12. Stein, R (2003): Age Model of Site 47-397.
  13. Stein, R (2005): Calcium carbonate content from Hole 47-397.
  14. Stein, R (2003): Sediment silt size fractions of site 47-397, tab A-V,X,XV,XXI.
  15. Stein, R (2005): Stable isotope ratio of benthic foraminifera from Hole 47-397.
  16. Stein, R (2006): Stable isotopes on benthic foraminifera from Hole 47-397.
  17. Stein, R (2003): Age Model of Site 79-544B.
  18. Stein, R (1997): Clay mineralogy of Hole 79-544B.
  19. Stein, R (1997): Sand and carbonate content from Hole 79-544B.
  20. Stein, R (2003): Sediment silt size fractions of site 79-544B, tab A-V,X,XV,XXI.