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Morard, Raphael; Reinelt, Melanie; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kucera, Michal (2016): (Supplementary Material 2) Landmark coordinates of the analyzed specimens with associated metadata. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Morard, R et al. (2016): Tracing shifts of oceanic fronts using the cryptic diversity of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia inflata. Paleoceanography, 31(9), 1193-1205,

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The use of planktonic foraminifera in paleoceanographic studies relies on the assumption that morphospecies represent biological species with ecological preferences that are stable through time and space. However, genetic surveys unveiled a considerable level of diversity in most morphospecies of planktonic foraminifera. This diversity is significant for paleoceanographic applications because cryptic species were shown to display distinct ecological preferences that could potentially help refine paleoceanographic proxies. Subtle morphological differences between cryptic species of planktonic foraminifera have been reported, but so far their applicability within paleoceanographic studies remains largely unexplored. Here we show how information on genetic diversity can be transferred to paleoceanography using Globorotalia inflata as a case study. The two cryptic species of G. inflata are separated by the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC), a major oceanographic feature in the South Atlantic. Based on this observation, we developed a morphological model of cryptic species detection in core top material. The application of the cryptic species detection model to Holocene samples implies latitudinal oscillations in the position of the confluence that are largely consistent with reconstructions obtained from stable isotope data. We show that the occurrence of cryptic species in G. inflata, can be detected in the fossil record and used to trace the migration of the BMC. Since a similar degree of morphological separation as in G. inflata has been reported from other species of planktonic foraminifera, the approach presented in this study can potentially yield a wealth of new paleoceanographical proxies.
Median Latitude: -39.605704 * Median Longitude: -53.117399 * South-bound Latitude: -49.795000 * West-bound Longitude: -58.618333 * North-bound Latitude: -31.757700 * East-bound Longitude: -48.148800
Date/Time Start: 1994-06-30T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2009-06-29T04:44:00
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