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Uthicke, Sven; Ebert, Thomas; Liddy, Michelle; Johansson, Charlotte; Fabricius, Katharina Elisabeth; Lamare, Miles (2016): Echinometra sea urchins acclimatised to elevated pCO2 at volcanic vents outperform those under present-day pCO2 conditions. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.864044, Supplement to: Uthicke, S et al. (2016): Echinometra sea urchins acclimatised to elevated pCO2 at volcanic vents outperform those under present-day pCO2 conditions. Global Change Biology, 22(7), 2451-2461, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13223

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Abstract:
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will significantly reduce ocean pH during the 21st century (ocean acidification, OA). This may hamper calcification in marine organisms such as corals and echinoderms, as shown in many laboratory-based experiments. Sea urchins are considered highly vulnerable to OA. We studied an Echinometra species on natural volcanic CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea, where they are CO2-acclimatized and also subjected to secondary ecological changes from elevated CO2. Near the vent site, the urchins experienced large daily variations in pH (> 1 unit) and pCO2 (> 2000 ppm) and average pH values (pHT 7.73) much below those expected under the most pessimistic future emission scenarios. Growth was measured over a 17-month period using tetracycline tagging of the calcareous feeding lanterns. Average-sized urchins grew more than twice as fast at the vent compared with those at an adjacent control site, and assumed larger sizes at the vent compared to the control site and two other sites at another reef near-by. A small reduction in gonad weight was detected at the vents, but no differences in mortality, respiration, or degree of test calcification were detected between urchins from vent and control populations. Thus, urchins did not only persist but actually 'thrived' under extreme CO2 conditions. We suggest an ecological basis for this response: increased algal productivity under increased pCO2 provided more food at the vent, resulting in higher growth rates. The wider implication of our observation is that laboratory studies on non-acclimatized specimens, which typically do not consider ecological changes, can lead to erroneous conclusions on responses to global change.
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise (2015): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.8. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Coverage:
Median Latitude: -9.792078 * Median Longitude: 150.840690 * South-bound Latitude: -9.828070 * West-bound Longitude: 150.818100 * North-bound Latitude: -9.752670 * East-bound Longitude: 150.871290
Date/Time Start: 2010-01-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2014-12-31T00:00:00
Minimum Elevation: -3.0 m * Maximum Elevation: -3.0 m
Event(s):
Dobu_A * Latitude: -9.752670 * Longitude: 150.853100 * Date/Time Start: 2014-11-07T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2014-11-11T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
Dobu_B * Latitude: -9.762970 * Longitude: 150.871290 * Date/Time Start: 2014-11-07T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2014-11-11T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
Upa-Upasina * Latitude: -9.824600 * Longitude: 150.818100 * Date/Time Start: 2010-01-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2014-12-31T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3.0 m * Location: South Pacific
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2016-08-24.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEventUthicke, Sven
2TypeTypeUthicke, Svenstudy
3SpeciesSpeciesUthicke, Sven
4LocationLocationUthicke, Sven
5IdentificationIDUthicke, Svenurchin_number
6DiameterØmmUthicke, Svenmax
7MassMassgUthicke, Sven
8DiameterØmmUthicke, Svenmin
9HeighthmmUthicke, Sven
10SizeSizemmUthicke, Svenlantern
11SalinitySalUthicke, Sven
12Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Uthicke, Sven
13Temperature, waterTemp°CUthicke, Sven
14pHpHUthicke, SvenPotentiometrictotal scale
15Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgUthicke, SvenPotentiometric titration
16Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmUthicke, SvenCalculated using CO2SYS
17Calcite saturation stateOmega CalUthicke, SvenCalculated using CO2SYS
18Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
19Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
20Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
21Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
22Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
23Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
24Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
25Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
26Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
17305 data points

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