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Piepenburg, Dieter (2016): Seabed photographs taken along OFOS profiles during POLARSTERN cruise PS96 (ANT-XXXI/2 FROSN). Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862097

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Within the context of the overall ecological working programme Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems (DynAMo) of the PS96 (ANT-XXXI/2) cruise of RV "Polarstern" to the Weddell Sea (Dec 2015 to Feb 2016), seabed imaging surveys were carried out along drift profiles by means of the Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven.
The setup and mode of deployment of the OFOS was similar to that described by Bergmann and Klages (2012, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.09.018). OFOS is a surface-powered gear equipped with two downward-looking cameras installed side-by-side: one high-resolution, wide-angle still camera (CANON® EOS 5D Mark III; lens: Canon EF 24 f/1.4L II, f stop: 13, exposure time: 1/125 sec; in-air view angles: 74° (horizontal), 53° (vertical), 84° (diagonal); image size: 5760 x 3840 px = 21 MPix; front of pressure resistant camera housing consisting of plexiglass dome port) and one high-definition color video camera (SONY® FCB-H11).
The system was vertically lowered over the stern of the ship with a broadband fibre-optic cable, until it hovers approximately 1.5 m above the seabed. It was then towed after the slowly sailing ship at a speed of approximately 0.5 kn (0.25 m/s). The ship's Global Acoustic Positioning System (GAPS), combining Ultra Short Base Line (USBL), Inertial Navigation System (INS) and satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies, was used to gain highly precise underwater position data of the OFOS.
During the profile, OFOS was kept hanging at the preferred height above the seafloor by means of the live video feed and occasional minor cable-length adjustments with the winch to compensate small-scale bathymetric variations in seabed morphology. Information on water depth and height above the seafloor were continuously recorded by means of OFOS-mounted sensors (GAPS transponder, Tritech altimeter).
Three lasers, which are placed beside the still camera, emit parallel beams and project red light points, arranged as an equilateral triangle with a side length of 50 cm, in each photo, thus providing a scale that can be used to calculate the seabed area depicted in each image and/or measure the size of organisms or seabed features visible in the image. In addition, the seabed area depicted was estimated using altimeter-derived height above seafloor and optical characteristics of the OFOS still camera.
In automatic mode, a seabed photo, depicting an area of approximately 3.45 m**2 (= 2.3 m x 1.5 m; with variations depending on the actual height above ground), was taken every 30 seconds to obtain series of "TIMER" stills distributed at regular distances along the profiles that vary in length depending on duration of the cast. At a ship speed of 0.5 kn, the average distance between seabed images was approximately 5 m. Additional "HOTKEY" photos were taken from interesting objects (organisms, seabed features, such as putative iceberg scours) when they appeared in the live video feed (which was also recorded, in addition to the stills, for documentation and possible later analysis).
If any image from this collection is used, please cite the reference as given above.
Related to:
Schröder, Michael (2016): The Expedition PS96 of the Research Vessel POLARSTERN to the southern Weddell Sea in 2015/2016. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung = Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 700, 142 pp, doi:10.2312/BzPM_0700_2016
Median Latitude: -74.834331 * Median Longitude: -29.852489 * South-bound Latitude: -76.720000 * West-bound Longitude: -52.193200 * North-bound Latitude: -70.886600 * East-bound Longitude: -11.108400
Date/Time Start: 2015-12-23T20:41:52 * Date/Time End: 2016-01-31T09:29:29
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