Data Description

Citation:
Dickinson, GH et al. (2011): Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860868,
Supplement to: Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, C; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M (2011): Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215(1), 29-43, doi:10.1242/jeb.061481
Abstract:
Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO2 levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric PCO2 (400 µatm, normocapnia) or PCO2 projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (700-800 µatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated PCO2 and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and PCO2, suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high PCO2. Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated PCO2 and fluctuating salinity may jeopardize the survival of eastern oysters because of weakening of their shells and increased energy consumption.
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise (2015): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.8. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb *
Project(s):
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2016-05-26.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Type *TypeSokolova, Inna M *study
2Species *SpeciesSokolova, Inna M *
3Registration number of species *Reg spec noSokolova, Inna M *
4Uniform resource locator/link to reference *URL refSokolova, Inna M *WoRMS Aphia ID
5Salinity *SalSokolova, Inna M *treatment
6Treatment *TreatmSokolova, Inna M *
7Sample ID *Sample IDSokolova, Inna M *
8Identification *IDSokolova, Inna M *individual number
9Adenosine triphosphate, per unit fresh weight *ATPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
10Adenosine diphosphate, per unit fresh weight *ADPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
11Adenosine monophosphate, per unit fresh weight *AMPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
12Adenylate energy charge *AECSokolova, Inna M *
13Adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio *ADP/ATPSokolova, Inna M *
14Adenosine triphosphate+adenosine diphosphate+adenosine monophosphate *ATP+ADP+AMPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
15Glucose *Gluµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
16Glycogen *Glycogenµmol/gSokolova, Inna M *
17mRNA gene expression, relative *mRNA expressSokolova, Inna M *18rRNA
18mRNA gene expression, relative *mRNA expressSokolova, Inna M *actin
19Crossing point for transcript *CPSokolova, Inna M *actin
20Crossing point for transcript *CPSokolova, Inna M *18rRNA
21Sum of end members *sum EMSokolova, Inna M *
22Lipids, per wet mass *Lipids/wet mmg/gSokolova, Inna M *
23Carbonic anhydrase activity, per protein *CA act/protU/gSokolova, Inna M *specific
24Esterase activity, per protein *FDA/protU/gSokolova, Inna M *specific
25Mass *MassmgSokolova, Inna M *whole Animal
26Mass *MassmgSokolova, Inna M *shell Only
27Mass *MassmgSokolova, Inna M *tissue
28Comment *CommentSokolova, Inna M *notes
29Betaine *Betaine%Sokolova, Inna M *
30Lysine *Lys%Sokolova, Inna M *% relative to control conditions
31Succinate *Succinate%Sokolova, Inna M *% relative to control conditions
32Acetate *Acetate%Sokolova, Inna M *% relative to control conditions
33Alanine *Ala%Sokolova, Inna M *% relative to control conditions
34pH *pHSokolova, Inna M *Potentiometric *NBS scale
35pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Potentiometric *NBS scale
36Temperature, water *Temp°CSokolova, Inna M *
37Temperature, water, standard deviation *Temp std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *
38Salinity *SalSokolova, Inna M *
39Salinity, standard deviation *Sal std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *
40Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
41Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviation *pCO2 std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
42Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
43Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
44Carbon, inorganic, dissolved *DICµmol/kgSokolova, Inna M *
45Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation *DIC std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *
46Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
47Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation *[HCO3]- std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
48Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
49Carbonate ion, standard deviation *[CO3]2- std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
50Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
51Carbon dioxide, standard deviation *CO2 std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
52Calcite saturation state *Omega CalSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
53Calcite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Cal std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
54Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgSokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
55Aragonite saturation state, standard deviation *Omega Arg std dev±Sokolova, Inna M *Calculated using CO2SYS *
56Carbonate system computation flag *CSC flagYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
57pH *pHYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *total scale
58Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
59Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
60Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
61Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
62Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
63Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
64Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
65Calcite saturation state *Omega CalYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
License:
Size:
9613 data points

Download Data

Download dataset as tab-delimited text (use the following character encoding: )

View dataset as HTML (shows only first 2000 rows)