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Dickinson, GH et al. (2011): Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860868,
Supplement to: Dickinson, Gary H; Ivanina, Anna; Matoo, Omera B; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Lannig, Gisela; Bock, C; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M (2011): Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215(1), 29-43, doi:10.1242/jeb.061481

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Abstract:
Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 lead to acidification of the ocean and alter seawater carbonate chemistry, which can negatively impact calcifying organisms, including mollusks. In estuaries, exposure to elevated CO2 levels often co-occurs with other stressors, such as reduced salinity, which enhances the acidification trend, affects ion and acid-base regulation of estuarine calcifiers and modifies their response to ocean acidification. We studied the interactive effects of salinity and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) on biomineralization and energy homeostasis in juveniles of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, a common estuarine bivalve. Juveniles were exposed for 11 weeks to one of two environmentally relevant salinities (30 or 15 PSU) either at current atmospheric PCO2 (400 µatm, normocapnia) or PCO2 projected by moderate IPCC scenarios for the year 2100 (700-800 µatm, hypercapnia). Exposure of the juvenile oysters to elevated PCO2 and/or low salinity led to a significant increase in mortality, reduction of tissue energy stores (glycogen and lipid) and negative soft tissue growth, indicating energy deficiency. Interestingly, tissue ATP levels were not affected by exposure to changing salinity and PCO2, suggesting that juvenile oysters maintain their cellular energy status at the expense of lipid and glycogen stores. At the same time, no compensatory upregulation of carbonic anhydrase activity was found under the conditions of low salinity and high PCO2. Metabolic profiling using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed altered metabolite status following low salinity exposure; specifically, acetate levels were lower in hypercapnic than in normocapnic individuals at low salinity. Combined exposure to hypercapnia and low salinity negatively affected mechanical properties of shells of the juveniles, resulting in reduced hardness and fracture resistance. Thus, our data suggest that the combined effects of elevated PCO2 and fluctuating salinity may jeopardize the survival of eastern oysters because of weakening of their shells and increased energy consumption.
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise (2015): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.8. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2016-05-26.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1TypeTypeSokolova, Inna Mstudy
2SpeciesSpeciesSokolova, Inna M
3Registration number of speciesReg spec noSokolova, Inna M
4Uniform resource locator/link to referenceURL refSokolova, Inna MWoRMS Aphia ID
5SalinitySalSokolova, Inna Mtreatment
6TreatmentTreatmSokolova, Inna M
7Sample IDSample IDSokolova, Inna M
8IdentificationIDSokolova, Inna Mindividual number
9Adenosine triphosphate, per unit fresh weightATPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
10Adenosine diphosphate, per unit fresh weightADPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
11Adenosine monophosphate, per unit fresh weightAMPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
12Adenylate energy chargeAECSokolova, Inna M
13Adenosine diphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratioADP/ATPSokolova, Inna M
14Adenosine triphosphate+adenosine diphosphate+adenosine monophosphateATP+ADP+AMPµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
15GlucoseGluµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
16GlycogenGlycogenµmol/gSokolova, Inna M
17mRNA gene expression, relativemRNA expressSokolova, Inna M18rRNA
18mRNA gene expression, relativemRNA expressSokolova, Inna Mactin
19Crossing point for transcriptCPSokolova, Inna Mactin
20Crossing point for transcriptCPSokolova, Inna M18rRNA
21Sum of end memberssum EMSokolova, Inna M
22Lipids, per wet massLipids/wet mmg/gSokolova, Inna M
23Carbonic anhydrase activity, per proteinCA act/protU/gSokolova, Inna Mspecific
24Esterase activity, per proteinFDA/protU/gSokolova, Inna Mspecific
25MassMassmgSokolova, Inna Mwhole Animal
26MassMassmgSokolova, Inna Mshell Only
27MassMassmgSokolova, Inna Mtissue
28CommentCommentSokolova, Inna Mnotes
29BetaineBetaine%Sokolova, Inna M
30LysineLys%Sokolova, Inna M% relative to control conditions
31SuccinateSuccinate%Sokolova, Inna M% relative to control conditions
32AcetateAcetate%Sokolova, Inna M% relative to control conditions
33AlanineAla%Sokolova, Inna M% relative to control conditions
34pHpHSokolova, Inna MPotentiometricNBS scale
35pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Sokolova, Inna MPotentiometricNBS scale
36Temperature, waterTemp°CSokolova, Inna M
37Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Sokolova, Inna M
38SalinitySalSokolova, Inna M
39Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Sokolova, Inna M
40Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
41Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
42Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
43Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
44Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgSokolova, Inna M
45Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Sokolova, Inna M
46Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
47Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
48Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
49Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
50Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
51Carbon dioxide, standard deviationCO2 std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
52Calcite saturation stateOmega CalSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
53Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
54Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgSokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
55Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Sokolova, Inna MCalculated using CO2SYS
56Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
57pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
58Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
59Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
60Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
61Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
62Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
63Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
64Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
65Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
9613 data points

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