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Rosas-Navarro, Anaid; Langer, Gerald; Ziveri, Patrizia (2016): Temperature affects the morphology and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi strains. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Rosas-Navarro, A et al. (2016): Temperature affects the morphology and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi strains. Biogeosciences, 13(10), 2913-2926,

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The global warming debate has sparked an unprecedented interest in temperature effects on coccolithophores. The calcification response to temperature changes reported in the literature, however, is ambiguous. The two main sources of this ambiguity are putatively differences in experimental setup and strain-specificity. In this study we therefore compare three strains isolated in the North Pacific under identical experimental conditions. Three strains of Emiliania huxleyi type A were grown under non-limiting nutrient and light conditions, at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC. All three strains displayed similar growth rate versus temperature relationships, with an optimum at 20-25 ºC. Elemental production (particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total particulate nitrogen (TPN)), coccolith mass, coccolith size, and width of the tube elements cycle were positively correlated with temperature over the sub-optimum to optimum temperature range. The correlation between PIC production and coccolith mass/size supports the notion that coccolith mass can be used as a proxy for PIC production in sediment samples. Increasing PIC production was significantly positively correlated with the percentage of incomplete coccoliths in one strain only. Generally, coccoliths were heavier when PIC production was higher. This shows that incompleteness of coccoliths is not due to time shortage at high PIC production. Sub-optimal growth temperatures lead to an increase in the percentage of malformed coccoliths in a strain-specific fashion. Since in total only six strains have been tested thus far, it is presently difficult to say whether sub-optimal temperature is an important factor causing malformations in the field. The most important parameter in biogeochemical terms, the PIC:POC, shows a minimum at optimum growth temperature in all investigated strains. This clarifies the ambiguous picture featuring in the literature, i.e. discrepancies between PIC:POC-temperature relationships reported in different studies using different strains and different experimental setups. In summary, global warming might cause a decline in coccolithophore's PIC contribution to the rain ratio, as well as improved fitness in some genotypes due to less coccolith malformations.
The carbonate system was calculated from temperature, salinity (32), TA and DIC, using the the program CO2Sys (Lewis and Wallace, 1998), applying the equilibrium constants from Mehrbach et al. (1973), refitted by Dickson and Millero (1987).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1IdentificationIDRosas-Navarro, Anaid
2StrainStrainRosas-Navarro, Anaid
3SpeciesSpeciesRosas-Navarro, Anaid
4Temperature, waterTemp°CRosas-Navarro, Anaid
5Bottle numberBottleRosas-Navarro, Anaid
6Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgRosas-Navarro, AnaidPotentiometric titration
7Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgRosas-Navarro, AnaidTOC analyzer (Shimadzu)
8pHpHRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYStotal scale
9Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYS
10Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYS
11Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYS
12Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYS
13Calcite saturation stateOmega CalRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated using CO2SYS
14Growth rateµ1/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
15Malformation rateMalformation%Rosas-Navarro, AnaidScanning electron microscope (SEM)
16Coccoliths, incompleteCocco incomplete%Rosas-Navarro, AnaidScanning electron microscope (SEM)
17WidthwµmRosas-Navarro, AnaidEstimated by measuring brightness in cross-polarized light (birefringence)Tube width
18LengthlµmRosas-Navarro, AnaidEstimated by measuring brightness in cross-polarized light (birefringence)Coccolith length
19MassMasspgRosas-Navarro, AnaidEstimated by measuring brightness in cross-polarized light (birefringence)Coccolith mass (calcite)
20Total particulate carbon per cellTPC cellpg/#Rosas-Navarro, Anaid
21Carbon, inorganic, particulate, per cellPIC/cellpg/#Rosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
22Carbon, organic, particulate, per cellPOCpg/#Rosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
23Concentration per cellConcpg/#Rosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedCalcite
24Concentration per cellConcpg/#Rosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedTPN
25Particulate inorganic carbon/particulate organic carbon ratioPIC/POCRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
26RatioRatioRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedPOC/TPN
27Total particulate carbon production per cellTPC prodpg/#/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
28Particulate inorganic carbon production per cellPIC prodpg/#/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
29Production of particulate organic carbon per cellPOC prodpg/#/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
30Calcium carbonate production per cellCaCO3 prodpg/#/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
31Nitrogen, total particulate production per cellTPN prodpg/#/dayRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculated
32SlopeSlopeRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedCoccolith per cell
33SlopeSlopeRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedCoccolith per cell and day
34SlopeSlopeRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedCoccolith per cell and hour
35SlopeSlopeRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedminute per Coccolith
36SlopeSlopeRosas-Navarro, AnaidCalculatedPIC pg/hour
1130 data points

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