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Kiko, Rainer; Werner, Iris; Wittmann, Astrid C (2009): (Table 1) Ion concentrations in the haemolymph of Apherusa glacialis after incubation at different medium salinities. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858995,
Supplement to: Kiko, R et al. (2008): Osmotic and ionic regulation in response to salinity variations and cold resistance in the Arctic under-ice amphipod Apherusa glacialis. Polar Biology, 32(3), 393-398, doi:10.1007/s00300-008-0531-z

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Amphipods living at the underside of Arctic sea ice are exposed to varying salinities due to freezing and melting, and have to cope with the resulting osmotic stress. Extracellular osmotic and ionic regulation at different salinities, thermal hysteresis, and supercooling points (SCPs) were studied in the under-ice amphipod Apherusa glacialis. The species is euryhaline, capable to regulate hyperosmotically at salinities S(R) < 30 g/kg, and osmoconforms at salinities S(R) >= 30 g/kg. Hyperosmotic regulation is an adaptation to thrive in low-salinity meltwater below the ice. Conforming to the ambient salinity during freezing reduces the risk of internal ice formation. Thermal hysteresis was not observed in the haemolymph of A. glacialis. The SCP of the species was -7.8 ± 1.9°C. Several ions were specifically downregulated ([Mg2+], [SO4]2-), or upregulated ([K+], [Ca2+]) in comparison to the medium. Strong downregulation of [Mg2+], is probably necessary to avoid an anaesthetic effect at low temperatures.
Median Latitude: 87.831150 * Median Longitude: -170.236750 * South-bound Latitude: 87.829600 * West-bound Longitude: -170.741000 * North-bound Latitude: 87.832700 * East-bound Longitude: -169.732500
Date/Time Start: 2007-09-02T11:12:00 * Date/Time End: 2007-09-02T23:45:00
Minimum Elevation: -3995.0 m * Maximum Elevation: -3992.0 m
PS70/328-1 * Latitude Start: 87.832700 * Longitude Start: -170.741000 * Latitude End: 87.829600 * Longitude End: -169.732500 * Date/Time Start: 2007-09-02T11:12:00 * Date/Time End: 2007-09-02T23:45:00 * Elevation Start: -3992.0 m * Elevation End: -3995.0 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: ARK-XXII/2 (PS70 SPACE DAMOCLES) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: Ice station (ICE)
Sample numbers are n = 2 to 4
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Experimental treatmentExp trtmKiko, Rainersalinity of medium in g/kg
2Sample typeSamp typeKiko, Rainer
3Potassium ionK+mmol/lKiko, Rainer
4Haemolymph, potassium ionK+ (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
5Magnesium ionMg2+mmol/lKiko, Rainer
6Haemolymph, magnesium ionMg2+ (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
7Calcium ionCa2+mmol/lKiko, Rainer
8Haemolymph, calcium ionCa2+ (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
9Sulfate ion[SO4]2-mmol/lKiko, Rainer
10Haemolymph, sulfate ion[SO4]2- (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
11Sodium ionNa+mmol/lKiko, Rainer
12Haemolymph, sodium ionNa+ (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
13Chloride ionCl-mmol/lKiko, Rainer
14Haemolymph, chloride ionCl- (ha)mmol/lKiko, Rainer
15SumSummmol/lKiko, Rainer
110 data points

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