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Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung (2016): Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Stumpp, M et al. (2015): Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes. Scientific Reports, 5, 10421,

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The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H+/K+-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that the gastric alkalization machinery in sea urchin larvae is mainly based on direct H+ secretion from the stomach lumen and involves a conserved set of ion pumps and transporters. Hemichordate larvae additionally utilized HCO3- transport pathways to generate even more alkaline digestive conditions. Molecular analyses in combination with acidification experiments supported these findings and identified genes coding for ion pumps energizing gastric alkalization. Given that insect larval guts were also reported to be alkaline, our discovery raises the hypothesis that the bilaterian ancestor utilized alkaline digestive system while the vertebrate lineage has evolved a strategy to strongly acidify their stomachs.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1TableTabStumpp, Meike
2FigureFigStumpp, Meike
3Experimental treatmentExp treatStumpp, Meike
4SpeciesSpeciesStumpp, Meike
5DescriptionDescriptionStumpp, Meikenumber of replicates
6pHpHStumpp, Meike
7pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Stumpp, Meike
8Alkalinity, totalATmmol(eq)/lStumpp, Meike
9Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Stumpp, Meike
10Carbon dioxide, partial pressurepCO2µatmStumpp, Meike
11Carbon dioxide, partial pressure, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Stumpp, Meike
12Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICmmol/lStumpp, Meike
13Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Stumpp, Meike
14Temperature, waterTemp°CStumpp, Meike
15SalinitySalStumpp, Meike
16Inhibition of gastric alkalizationInhib gastric alkal%Stumpp, Meikemean
17Standard errorStd e±Stumpp, Meikemean, inhibition of gastric alkalization
18Gene nameGeneStumpp, Meike
19Gene expression, fold change, relativeGene expressionStumpp, Meikemean log2-fold change
20Gene expression, fold change, relative, standard errorGene expression std e±Stumpp, Meikemean
208 data points

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