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Dean, Walter E (1970): Description and chemical composition of ferromanganese deposits from Oneida Lake, New York. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Dean, WE (1970): Fe-Mn oxidate crusts in Oneida Lake, New York. In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Great Lake Research. Presented at the 13th Conference on Great Lake Research, International Association For Great Lakes Research, University College, Buffalo, New York, 217-226, hdl:10013/epic.46476.d006

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Saucer-shaped iron-manganese crusts occur adjacent to gravel shoal areas in Oneida lake in central New York. The crusts usually have a crude concentric banding owing to an alternation of orange, iron-rich layers and black, iron-poor layers. Materials from both types of layers are x-ray amorphous. The Oneida lake crusts, like most other freshwater manganese nodules, contain about the same Mn concentration as marine manganese nodules, but are usually higher in Fe and lower in trace metals than their marine equivalents. Although Fe and Mn may be precipitating directly from the lake water, it is more likely that the oxidate crusts are the result of precipitation of Fe and Mn when reduced sediment pore water comes in contact with well oxygenated bottom waters. Organisms, particularly bacteria, may play a role in the formation of the crusts, but to date no evidence of this has been found.
Source data set:
Grant, John Bruce; Moore, Carla J; Alameddin, George; Chen, Kuiying; Barton, Mark (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Further details:
Dean, Walter E; Ghosh, Swapan K (1978): Picture of ferromanganese nodules on bottom of Oneida Lake. In: Dean, WE; Ghosh, SK. Factors contributing to the formation of ferromanganese nodules in Oneida Lake, New York. Journal of Research of the U. S. Geological Survey 6, 231-240., hdl:10013/epic.46476.d001
Warnken, Robin R; Virden, William T; Moore, Carla J (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Bibliography. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Latitude: 43.183520 * Longitude: -75.930090
Oneida-Lake-SP * Latitude: 43.183520 * Longitude: -75.930090 * Lake water depth: 14 m * Location: Oneida Lake, NY, USA * Method/Device: Sampling by diver (DIVER)
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