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Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank (2015): Ammonium excretion and respiration rate of tropical copepods and euphausiids measured during METEOR cruise M93, M97 and Maria S. Merian cruise MSM22. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Kiko, R et al. (2016): Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions. Biogeosciences, 13(8), 2241-2255,

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Respiration and ammonium excretion rates at different oxygen partial pressure were measured for calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific and the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic. All specimens used for experiments were caught in the upper 400 m of the water column and only animals appearing unharmed and fit were used for experiments. Specimens were sorted, identified and transferred into aquaria with filtered, well-oxygenated seawater immediately after the catch and maintained for 1 to 13 hours prior to physiological experiments at the respective experimental temperature. Maintenance and physiological experiments were conducted in darkness in temperature-controlled incubators at 11, 13 or 23 degree C (±1). Before and during experiments, animals were not fed. Respiration and ammonium excretion rate measurements (both in µmol h-1 gDW-1) at varying oxygen concentrations were conducted in 12 to 60 mL gas-tight glass bottles. These were equipped with oxygen microsensors (ø 3 mm, PreSens Precision Sensing GmbH, Regensburg, Germany) attached to the inner wall of the bottles to monitor oxygen concentrations non-invasively. Read-out of oxygen concentrations was conducted using multi-channel fiber optic oxygen transmitters (Oxy-4 and Oxy-10 mini, PreSens Precision Sensing GmbH, Regensburg, Germany) that were connected via optical fibers to the outside of the bottles directly above the oxygen microsensor spots. Measurements were started at pre-adjusted oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. For this, seawater stocks with adjusted pO2 and pCO2 were prepared by equilibrating 3 to 4 L of filtered (0.2 µm filter Whatman GFF filter) and UV - sterilized (Aqua Cristal UV C 5 Watt, JBL GmbH & Co. KG, Neuhofen, Germany) water with premixed gases (certified gas mixtures from Air Liquide) for 4 hours at the respective experimental temperature. pCO2 levels were chosen to mimic the environmental pCO2 in the ETSP OMZ or the ETNA OMZ.
Experimental runs were conducted with 11 to 15 trial incubations (1 or 2 animals per incubation bottle and three different treatment levels) and three animal-free control incubations (one per experimental treatment). During each run, experimental treatments comprised 100% air saturation as well as one reduced air saturation level with and without CO2. Oxygen concentrations in the incubation bottles were recorded every 5 min using the fiber-optic microsensor system and data recording for respiration rate determination was started immediately after all animals were transferred. Respiration rates were calculated from the slope of oxygen decrease over selected time intervals. Chosen time intervals were 20 to 105 min long. No respiration rate was calculated for the first 20 to 60 min after animal transfer to avoid the impact of enhanced activity of the animal or changes in the bottle water temperature during initial handling on the respiration rates and oxygen readings. Respiration rates were obtained over a maximum of 16 hours incubation time and slopes were linear at normoxia to mild hypoxia. Respiration rates in animal-free control bottles were used to correct for microbial activity. These rates were < 2% of animal respiration rates at normoxia.
Samples for the measurement of ammonium concentrations were taken after 2 to 10 hours incubation time. Ammonium concentration was determined fluorimetrically (Holmes et al., 1999). Ammonium excretion was calculated as the concentration difference between incubation and animal-free control bottles. Some specimens died during the respiration and excretion rate measurements, as indicated by a cessation of respiration. No excretion rate measurements were conducted in this case, but the oxygen level at which the animal died was noted.
German Science Foundation (DFG), grant/award no. 27542298: Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean
Median Latitude: 1.886526 * Median Longitude: -45.854627 * South-bound Latitude: -13.949500 * West-bound Longitude: -77.821333 * North-bound Latitude: 18.005667 * East-bound Longitude: -17.761167
Date/Time Start: 2012-11-04T00:17:00 * Date/Time End: 2013-06-20T20:48:00
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