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Bonatti, Enrico; Joensuu, O (1967): (Table 3, 4, and 5 - page 458, 460, 470) Optical spectrographic analyses of samples from AMPHITRITE. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Bonatti, Enrico (1967): Mechanisms of deep-sea volcanism in the South Pacific. In: Abelson, P (Ed.) Researches in Geochemistry, Wiley, New York, 2, 453-491, hdl:10013/epic.45968.d001

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It is stressed that the main difference between quiet and hyaloclastic activity is that in the former the interaction between hot lava and seawater during the eruption is minimal, whereas it is very extensive in the latter. This strong interaction is the cause of the processes which accompany hyaloclastic eruptions, processes which, in their turn, influence the chemistry and mineralogy of wide areas of the Pacific Ocean floor. Admittedly they are not well known yet, but their extensive study seems worthwhile. Two suggestions based on data presented here may be pointed out : 1) Deep-sea basaltic rocks showing breccia and/or ash-like features must not necessarily have erupted under shallow water or above sea level, as is commonly believed. 2) The "altered" or "fresh" appearance of submarine basalts is not necessarily to be ascribed to the relative age or youth of the rock. In fact extensive "alteration" of submarine lavas may commonly take place rapidly at high temperature during the eruption, rather than gradually after emplacement as is generally the case in subaerial formations. Deep-sea waters of the Pacific normally have a pH close to 7 and a rather constant low temperature, close to 0°C. Alteration of igneous minerals after emplacement under such conditions must be exceedingly slow, and concepts of "weathering" as learned in surface geology cannot be applied.
Source data set:
Grant, John Bruce; Moore, Carla J; Alameddin, George; Chen, Kuiying; Barton, Mark (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Further details:
Warnken, Robin R; Virden, William T; Moore, Carla J (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Bibliography. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Median Latitude: -12.355333 * Median Longitude: -114.744333 * South-bound Latitude: -18.600000 * West-bound Longitude: -126.500000 * North-bound Latitude: -7.833000 * East-bound Longitude: -108.133000
Date/Time Start: 1963-12-20T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1963-12-31T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m
AMPH-001D (AMPH01AR-001D) * Latitude: -7.833000 * Longitude: -108.133000 * Date/Time: 1963-12-20T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2017.0 m * Location: Pacific Ocean * Campaign: AMPHITRITE (AMPH01AR) * Basis: Argo * Method/Device: Dredge (DRG) * Comment: PI: Von Herzen, Richard P.
AMPH-002D (AMPH01AR-002D) * Latitude: -10.633000 * Longitude: -109.600000 * Date/Time: 1963-12-23T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3256.0 m * Location: Pacific Ocean * Campaign: AMPHITRITE (AMPH01AR) * Basis: Argo * Method/Device: Dredge (DRG) * Comment: PI: Von Herzen, Richard P.
AMPH-005D (AMPH01AR-005D) * Latitude: -18.600000 * Longitude: -126.500000 * Date/Time: 1963-12-31T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3477.0 m * Location: Pacific Ocean * Campaign: AMPHITRITE (AMPH01AR) * Basis: Argo * Method/Device: Dredge (DRG) * Comment: PI: Von Herzen, Richard P.
From 1983 until 1989 NOAA-NCEI compiled the NOAA-MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database from journal articles, technical reports and unpublished sources from other institutions. At the time it was the most extended data compilation on ferromanganese deposits world wide. Initially published in a propriatory format incompatible with present day standards it was jointly decided by AWI and NOAA to transcribe this legacy data into PANGAEA. This transfer is augmented by a careful checking of the original sources when available and the encoding of ancillary information (sample description, method of analysis...) not present in the NOAA-MMS database.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEventJoensuu, O
2Sample IDSample IDJoensuu, O
3DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmJoensuu, OGeocode
4Silicon dioxideSiO2%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
5Aluminium oxideAl2O3%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
6Calcium oxideCaO%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
7Magnesium oxideMgO%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
8Potassium oxideK2O%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
9Titanium dioxideTiO2%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
10IronFe%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
11ManganeseMn%Joensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
12NickelNimg/kgJoensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
13CobaltComg/kgJoensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
14ChromiumCrmg/kgJoensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
15CopperCumg/kgJoensuu, OOptical spectrographic analysis
16DescriptionDescriptionBonatti, Enrico
64 data points

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