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Stevenson, J S; Stevenson, L S (1970): Analysis of Manganese nodules from the Challenger Expedition. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Stevenson, JS; Stevenson, LS (1970): Manganese nodules from the Challenger Expedition at Redpath Museum. original version at (pdf 1.5 Mb), Canadian Mineralogist, 10(4), 599-615, hdl:10013/epic.45948.d001

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Manganese nodules from Stations 252 and 281 of the Challenger Expedition, collected in 1875, have recently been discovered in the Redpath Museum. The nodules have been found to be quite typical specimens of two areas in the Central Pacific Ocean except for dehydration and other changes that have taken place during storage. The principal resolvable manganese mineral in nodules from Station 252 proved to be 10 A manganite; there was a very thin surface coating of birnessite. Delta manganite was the only manganese mineral found in nodules from Station 281. Through electron microprobe studies, findings from chemical, optical and x-ray crystallographic work were correlated with the detailed picture of the occurrence and quantities of the different elements within the nodules. In all cases it was found that the iron and manganese had an antithetical relationship, and that nickel and copper were associated with the manganese. Special study was given to a 300-micron-square area in a nodule from Station 252 which included a segregation of 49.39% Mn, 5.31 % Ni, and 1.64% Cu. Crystallization of the manganese phases is thought to have provided a mech¨anism for formation of segregations which were further enriched through chemical scavenger action as long as ocean floor conditions permitted.
Source data set:
Grant, John Bruce; Moore, Carla J; Alameddin, George; Chen, Kuiying; Barton, Mark (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Further details:
Warnken, Robin R; Virden, William T; Moore, Carla J (1992): The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Bibliography. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA,
Median Latitude: 7.758333 * Median Longitude: -155.283333 * South-bound Latitude: -22.350000 * West-bound Longitude: -160.283333 * North-bound Latitude: 37.866667 * East-bound Longitude: -150.283333
Date/Time Start: 1875-07-12T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1875-10-06T00:00:00
CHA-252 * Latitude: 37.866667 * Longitude: -160.283333 * Date/Time: 1875-07-12T00:00:00 * Elevation: -4499.0 m * Campaign: Challenger1872 * Basis: H.M.S. Challenger (1872) * Method/Device: Grab (GRAB)
CHA-281 * Latitude: -22.350000 * Longitude: -150.283333 * Date/Time: 1875-10-06T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3916.0 m * Campaign: Challenger1872 * Basis: H.M.S. Challenger (1872) * Method/Device: Grab (GRAB)
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