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Bittig, Henry; Körtzinger, Arne (2015): Underway measurements of dissolved gases along POLARSTERN cruise track ANT-XXVII/2. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.848615,
Supplement to: Tortell, Philippe Daniel; Bittig, Henry; Körtzinger, Arne; Jones, E M; Hoppema, Mario (2015): Biological and physical controls on N2, O2, and CO2 distributions in contrasting Southern Ocean surface waters. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(7), 994-1013, doi:10.1002/2014GB004975
We present measurements of pCO2, O2 concentration, biological oxygen saturation (Delta O2/Ar) and N2 saturation (Delta N2) in Southern Ocean surface waters during austral summer, 2010-2011. Phytoplankton biomass varied strongly across distinct hydrographic zones, with high chlorophyll a (Chla) concentrations in regions of frontal mixing and sea-ice melt. pCO2 and Delta O2 /Ar exhibited large spatial gradients (range 90 to 450 µatm and -10 to 60%, respectively) and co-varied strongly with Chla. However, the ratio of biological O2 accumulation to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) drawdown was significantly lower than expected from photosynthetic stoichiometry, reflecting the differential time-scales of O2 and CO2 air-sea equilibration. We measured significant oceanic CO2 uptake, with a mean air-sea flux (~ -20 mmol m-2 d-1) that significantly exceeded regional climatological values. N2 was mostly supersaturated in surface waters (mean Delta N2 of +2.5 %), while physical processes resulted in both supersaturation and undersaturation of mixed layer O2 (mean Delta O2phys = 2.1 %). Box model calculations were able to reproduce much of the spatial variability of Delta N2 and Delta O2phys along the cruise track, demonstrating significant effects of air-sea exchange processes (e.g. atmospheric pressure changes and bubble injection) and mixed layer entrainment on surface gas disequilibria. Net community production (NCP) derived from entrainment-corrected surface Delta O2 /Ar data, ranged from ~ -40 to > 300 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and showed good coherence with independent NCP estimates based on seasonal mixed layer DIC deficits. Elevated NCP was observed in hydrographic frontal zones and regions of sea-ice melt with shallow mixed layer depths, reflecting the importance of mixing in controlling surface water light and nutrient availability.
Median Latitude: -61.712460 * Median Longitude: -32.894457 * South-bound Latitude: -71.124200 * West-bound Longitude: -75.334400 * North-bound Latitude: -33.857600 * East-bound Longitude: 18.438700
Date/Time Start: 2010-11-28T08:00:40 * Date/Time End: 2011-02-03T07:59:40
Minimum DEPTH, water: 11 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 11 m
PS77/2-track * * Latitude Start: -33.911860 * Longitude Start: 18.434600 * Latitude End: -53.144700 * Longitude End: -70.909100 * Date/Time Start: 2010-11-28T06:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-02-05T06:00:00 * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * * Campaign: ANT-XXVII/2 (PS77) * * Basis: Polarstern * * Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT) *
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1DATE/TIME *Date/TimeBittig, Henry *Geocode
2LATITUDE *LatitudeBittig, Henry *Geocode
3LONGITUDE *LongitudeBittig, Henry *Geocode
4DEPTH, water *Depth watermBittig, Henry *Geocode
5Temperature, water *Temp°CBittig, Henry *Thermosalinograph *ITS-90
6Salinity *SalBittig, Henry *Thermosalinograph *
7Pressure, atmospheric *PPPPhPaBittig, Henry *Ships weather station *DShip
8Oxygen *OXYGENµmol/kgBittig, Henry *Oxygen optode, Aanderaa, type 3830 *SN 529 until 01.12.2010 18:44; SN 203 onwards
9Oxygen, partial pressure *pO2mbarBittig, Henry *derived *from Oxygen concentration
10Oxygen saturation *O2 sat%Bittig, Henry *derived *from Oxygen concentration
11Pressure, total, dissolved gases *pgtdmbarBittig, Henry *Gas Tension Device *Pro-Oceanus, model HGTD;
12Nitrogen, total dissolved *TDNµmol/kgBittig, Henry *derived *assuming Ar saturation at 100%; Hamme and Emerson, 2004
13Nitrogen, partial pressure *pN2mbarBittig, Henry *derived *assuming Ar saturation at 100%
14Nitrogen saturation *N2sat%Bittig, Henry *derived *assuming Ar saturation at 100%
796315 data points

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