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Bittig, Henry; Körtzinger, Arne (2015): Underway measurements of dissolved gases along POLARSTERN cruise track ANT-XXVII/2. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Tortell, Philippe Daniel; Bittig, Henry; Körtzinger, Arne; Jones, Elizabeth M; Hoppema, Mario (2015): Biological and physical controls on N2, O2, and CO2 distributions in contrasting Southern Ocean surface waters. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(7), 994-1013,

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We present measurements of pCO2, O2 concentration, biological oxygen saturation (Delta O2/Ar) and N2 saturation (Delta N2) in Southern Ocean surface waters during austral summer, 2010-2011. Phytoplankton biomass varied strongly across distinct hydrographic zones, with high chlorophyll a (Chla) concentrations in regions of frontal mixing and sea-ice melt. pCO2 and Delta O2 /Ar exhibited large spatial gradients (range 90 to 450 µatm and -10 to 60%, respectively) and co-varied strongly with Chla. However, the ratio of biological O2 accumulation to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) drawdown was significantly lower than expected from photosynthetic stoichiometry, reflecting the differential time-scales of O2 and CO2 air-sea equilibration. We measured significant oceanic CO2 uptake, with a mean air-sea flux (~ -20 mmol m-2 d-1) that significantly exceeded regional climatological values. N2 was mostly supersaturated in surface waters (mean Delta N2 of +2.5 %), while physical processes resulted in both supersaturation and undersaturation of mixed layer O2 (mean Delta O2phys = 2.1 %). Box model calculations were able to reproduce much of the spatial variability of Delta N2 and Delta O2phys along the cruise track, demonstrating significant effects of air-sea exchange processes (e.g. atmospheric pressure changes and bubble injection) and mixed layer entrainment on surface gas disequilibria. Net community production (NCP) derived from entrainment-corrected surface Delta O2 /Ar data, ranged from ~ -40 to > 300 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and showed good coherence with independent NCP estimates based on seasonal mixed layer DIC deficits. Elevated NCP was observed in hydrographic frontal zones and regions of sea-ice melt with shallow mixed layer depths, reflecting the importance of mixing in controlling surface water light and nutrient availability.
Median Latitude: -61.712460 * Median Longitude: -32.894457 * South-bound Latitude: -71.124200 * West-bound Longitude: -75.334400 * North-bound Latitude: -33.857600 * East-bound Longitude: 18.438700
Date/Time Start: 2010-11-28T08:00:40 * Date/Time End: 2011-02-03T07:59:40
Minimum DEPTH, water: 11 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 11 m
PS77/2-track * Latitude Start: -33.911860 * Longitude Start: 18.434600 * Latitude End: -53.144700 * Longitude End: -70.909100 * Date/Time Start: 2010-11-28T06:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-02-05T06:00:00 * Location: South Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: ANT-XXVII/2 (PS77) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Underway cruise track measurements (CT)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1DATE/TIMEDate/TimeBittig, HenryGeocode
2LATITUDELatitudeBittig, HenryGeocode
3LONGITUDELongitudeBittig, HenryGeocode
4DEPTH, waterDepth watermBittig, HenryGeocode
5Temperature, waterTemp°CBittig, HenryThermosalinograph (TSG)ITS-90
6SalinitySalBittig, HenryThermosalinograph (TSG)
7Pressure, atmosphericPPPPhPaBittig, HenryShips weather stationDShip
8OxygenO2µmol/kgBittig, HenryOxygen optode, Aanderaa, type 3830SN 529 until 01.12.2010 18:44; SN 203 onwards
9Oxygen, partial pressurepO2mbarBittig, Henryderivedfrom Oxygen concentration
10Oxygen saturationO2 sat%Bittig, Henryderivedfrom Oxygen concentration
11Pressure, total, dissolved gasespgtdmbarBittig, HenryGas Tension DevicePro-Oceanus, model HGTD;
12Nitrogen, total dissolvedTDNµmol/kgBittig, Henryderivedassuming Ar saturation at 100%; Hamme and Emerson, 2004
13Nitrogen, partial pressurepN2mbarBittig, Henryderivedassuming Ar saturation at 100%
14Nitrogen saturationN2sat%Bittig, Henryderivedassuming Ar saturation at 100%
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