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Gallucci, Fabiane; Sauter, Eberhard-Jürgen; Sachs, Oliver; Klages, Michael; Soltwedel, Thomas (2008): (Appendix A) Pigment content, microbial biomass and activity, and grain size characteristics in caged and control sites of the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Gallucci, F et al. (2008): Caging experiment in the deep sea: Efficiency and artefacts from a case study at the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 354(1), 39-55,

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Present theories of deep-sea community organization recognize the importance of small-scale biological disturbances, originated partly from the activities of epibenthic megafaunal organisms, in maintaining high benthic biodiversity in the deep sea. However, due to technical difficulties, in situ experimental studies to test hypotheses in the deep sea are lacking. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cages as tools for studying the importance of epibenthic megafauna for deep-sea benthic communities. Using the deep-diving Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) "VICTOR 6000", six experimental cages were deployed at the sea floor at 2500 m water depth and sampled after 2 years (2y) and 4 years (4y) for a variety of sediment parameters in order to test for caging artefacts. Photo and video footage from both experiments showed that the cages were efficient at excluding the targeted fauna. The cage also proved to be appropriate to deep-sea studies considering the fact that there was no fouling on the cages and no evidence of any organism establishing residence on or adjacent to it. Environmental changes inside the cages were dependent on the experimental period analysed. In the 4y experiment, chlorophyll a concentrations were higher in the uppermost centimeter of sediment inside cages whereas in the 2y experiment, it did not differ between inside and outside. Although the cages caused some changes to the sedimentary regime, they are relatively minor compared to similar studies in shallow water. The only parameter that was significantly higher under cages at both experiments was the concentration of phaeopigments. Since the epibenthic megafauna at our study site can potentially affect phytodetritus distribution and availability at the seafloor (e.g. via consumption, disaggregation and burial), we suggest that their exclusion was, at least in part, responsible for the increases in pigment concentrations. Cages might be suitable tools to study the long-term effects of disturbances caused by megafaunal organisms on the diversity and community structure of smaller-sized organisms in the deep sea, although further work employing partial cage controls, greater replication, and evaluating faunal components will be essential to unequivocally establish their utility.
German Science Foundation (DFG), grant/award no. 5472008: Priority Programme 1158 Antarctic Research with Comparable Investigations in Arctic Sea Ice Areas
Median Latitude: 79.071000 * Median Longitude: 4.113550 * South-bound Latitude: 79.070000 * West-bound Longitude: 4.100000 * North-bound Latitude: 79.072000 * East-bound Longitude: 4.127100
Date/Time Start: 1999-07-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2003-07-27T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.01 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.05 m
PS55/001-1 * Latitude: 79.070000 * Longitude: 4.100000 * Date/Time: 1999-07-01T00:00:00 * Location: Hausgarten * Campaign: ARK-XV/1 (PS55) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Victor6000 ROV (VICTOR) * Comment: water depth approx. 2500 m; deployment of a colonization frame
PS64/435-1 * Latitude: 79.072000 * Longitude: 4.127100 * Date/Time Start: 2003-07-26T13:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2003-07-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2501.0 m * Location: North Greenland Sea * Campaign: ARK-XIX/3c (PS64) * Basis: Polarstern * Method/Device: Remote operated vehicle (ROV)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEventGallucci, Fabiane
2DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGallucci, FabianeGeocode
3Experimental treatmentExp treatGallucci, Fabiane
4ExperimentExpGallucci, Fabianeduration
5Time coverageCoverageGallucci, Fabiane
6ReplicatesRepl#Gallucci, FabianeChl a
7Chlorophyll aChl aµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemean
8Chlorophyll aChl aµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemin
9Chlorophyll aChl aµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemax
10Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeChl a
11ReplicatesRepl#Gallucci, FabianePhaeo
12PhaeopigmentsPhaeµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemean
13PhaeopigmentsPhaeµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemin
14PhaeopigmentsPhaeµg/cm2Gallucci, Fabianemax
15Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianePhaeo
16ReplicatesRepl#Gallucci, FabianeTMB
17Total microbial biomass as carbon per unit sediment volumeTMB/sedµg/cm3Gallucci, Fabianemean
18Total microbial biomass as carbon per unit sediment volumeTMB/sedµg/cm3Gallucci, Fabianemin
19Total microbial biomass as carbon per unit sediment volumeTMB/sedµg/cm3Gallucci, Fabianemax
20Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeTMB
21ReplicatesRepl#Gallucci, FabianeFDA
22Esterase activity per sediment volumeFDAnmol/cm3/hGallucci, Fabianemean
23Esterase activity per sediment volumeFDAnmol/cm3/hGallucci, Fabianemin
24Esterase activity per sediment volumeFDAnmol/cm3/hGallucci, Fabianemax
25Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeFDA
26ReplicatesRepl#Gallucci, Fabianegrainz size analysis
27Median, grain sizeD50µmGallucci, Fabianemean
28Median, grain sizeD50µmGallucci, Fabianemin
29Median, grain sizeD50µmGallucci, Fabianemax
30Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, Fabianemedian grain size
31SortingSortGallucci, Fabianemean
32SortingSortGallucci, Fabianemin
33SortingSortGallucci, Fabianemax
34Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, Fabianesorting
35Size fraction < 0.004 mm, clay<4 µm%Gallucci, Fabianemean
36Size fraction < 0.004 mm, clay<4 µm%Gallucci, Fabianemin
37Size fraction < 0.004 mm, clay<4 µm%Gallucci, Fabianemax
38Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeClay
39SiltSilt%Gallucci, Fabianemean
40SiltSilt%Gallucci, Fabianemin
41SiltSilt%Gallucci, Fabianemax
42Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeSilt
43SandSand%Gallucci, Fabianemean
44SandSand%Gallucci, Fabianemin
45SandSand%Gallucci, Fabianemax
46Coefficient of variationCV%Gallucci, FabianeSand
860 data points

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