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Silbiger, N J; Guadayol, Òscar; Thomas, Florence I M; Donahue, M J (2014): Reefs shift from net accretion to net erosion along a natural environmental gradient. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.846699, Supplement to: Silbiger, NJ et al. (2014): Reefs shift from net accretion to net erosion along a natural environmental gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 515, 33-44, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10999

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Abstract:
Coral reefs persist in an accretion-erosion balance and ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions threatens to shift this balance in favor of net reef erosion. Corals and calcifying algae, largely responsible for reef accretion, are vulnerable to environmental changes associated with ocean acidification, but the direct effects of lower pH on reef erosion has received less attention, particularly in the context of known drivers of bioerosion and natural variability. This study examines the balance between reef accretion and erosion along a well-characterized natural environmental gradient in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i using experimental blocks of coral skeleton. Comparing before and after micro-computed tomography (µCT) scans to quantify net accretion and erosion, we show that, at the small spatial scale of this study (tens of meters), pH was a better predictor of the accretion-erosion balance than environmental drivers suggested by prior studies, including resource availability, temperature, distance from shore, or depth. In addition, this study highlights the fine-scale variation of pH in coastal systems and the importance of microhabitat variation for reef accretion and erosion processes. We demonstrate significant changes in both the mean and variance of pH on the order of meters, providing a local perspective on global increases in pCO2. Our findings suggest that increases in reef erosion, combined with expected decreases in calcification, will accelerate the shift of coral reefs to an erosion-dominated system in a high-CO2 world. This shift will make reefs increasingly susceptible to storm damage and sea-level rise, threatening the maintenance of the ecosystem services that coral reefs provide.
Keyword(s):
Benthos; Calcification/Dissolution; Coast and continental shelf; Entire community; Field observation; North Atlantic; Rocky-shore community; Tropical
Further details:
Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Lavigne, Héloise (2015): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.6. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Coverage:
Latitude: 21.433000 * Longitude: -157.786000
Date/Time Start: 2011-03-31T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-04-10T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: 0.12 m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 4.52 m
Event(s):
Coconut_Island * Latitude: 21.433000 * Longitude: -157.786000 * Date/Time Start: 2011-03-31T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-04-10T00:00:00 * Method/Device: Experiment (EXP)
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Gattuso et al, 2015) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2015-06-01.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Temperature anomalyT anomaly°CSilbiger, N J
2Temperature, waterTemp°CSilbiger, N Jcovariance
3Chlorophyll aChl aµg/lSilbiger, N J
4Chlorophyll a, standard deviationChl a std dev±Silbiger, N J
5Nitrogen/Phosphorus ratioN/PSilbiger, N J
6Nitrogen/Phosphorus ratio, standard deviationN/P std dev±Silbiger, N J
7Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgSilbiger, N JPotentiometric titration
8Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Silbiger, N JPotentiometric titration
9pHpHSilbiger, N JSpectrophotometrictotal scale
10pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Silbiger, N JSpectrophotometrictotal scale
11Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgSilbiger, N J
12Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Silbiger, N J
13Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmSilbiger, N J
14Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Silbiger, N J
15Temperature, waterTemp°CSilbiger, N J
16Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Silbiger, N J
17SalinitySalSilbiger, N J
18Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Silbiger, N J
19DEPTH, waterDepth watermSilbiger, N JGeocode
20DistanceDistancemSilbiger, N Jfrom shore
21ChangeChange%Silbiger, N Jin volume of blocks
22Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
23Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
24Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
25Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
26Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
27Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
28Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
29Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
30Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
580 data points

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