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Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Cossa, Daniel; Point, David; Lagane, Christelle; Laffont, Laure; Galfond, Benjamin T; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M (2015): Total mercury and total methylmercury during the POLARSTERN cruise ARK-XXVI/3 (TransArc). PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.844492, Supplement to: Heimbürger, L-E et al. (2015): Shallow methylmercury production in the marginal sea ice zone of the central Arctic Ocean. Scientific Reports, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10318

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Abstract:
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic compound that threatens wildlife and human health across the Arctic region. Though much is known about the source and dynamics of its inorganic mercury (Hg) precursor, the exact origin of the high MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota remains uncertain. Arctic coastal sediments, coastal marine waters and surface snow are known sites for MeHg production. Observations on marine Hg dynamics, however, have been restricted to the Canadian Archipelago and the Beaufort Sea (<79°N). Here we present the first central Arctic Ocean (79-90°N) profiles for total mercury (tHg) and MeHg. We find elevated tHg and MeHg concentrations in the marginal sea ice zone (81-85°N). Similar to other open ocean basins, Arctic MeHg concentration maxima also occur in the pycnocline waters, but at much shallower depths (150-200 m). The shallow MeHg maxima just below the productive surface layer possibly result in enhanced biological uptake at the base of the Arctic marine food web and may explain the elevated MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota. We suggest that Arctic warming, through thinning sea ice, extension of the seasonal sea ice zone, intensified surface ocean stratification and shifts in plankton ecodynamics, will likely lead to higher marine MeHg production.
Related to:
Kattner, Gerhard; Ludwichowski, Kai-Uwe (2014): Inorganic nutrients measured on water bottle samples during POLARSTERN cruise ARK-XXVI/3 (TransArc). Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.832164
Schauer, Ursula; Rabe, Benjamin; Wisotzki, Andreas (2012): Physical oceanography during POLARSTERN cruise ARK-XXVI/3 (TransArc). Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774181
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 83.816540 * Median Longitude: 139.483210 * South-bound Latitude: 79.147330 * West-bound Longitude: 120.760500 * North-bound Latitude: 89.964500 * East-bound Longitude: 166.414670
Date/Time Start: 2011-08-22T11:42:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-09-21T05:59:00
Minimum DEPTH, water: m * Maximum DEPTH, water: 5216 m
Event(s):
PS78/218-2  * Latitude: 89.964500 * Longitude: 146.631170 * Date/Time: 2011-08-22T11:42:00 * Elevation: -4117.9 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: ARK-XXVI/3 (PS78 TransArc) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
PS78/245-2  * Latitude: 84.794500 * Longitude: 166.414670 * Date/Time: 2011-09-08T22:15:00 * Elevation: -3376.1 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: ARK-XXVI/3 (PS78 TransArc) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
PS78/273-2  * Latitude: 81.359830 * Longitude: 120.760500 * Date/Time: 2011-09-19T19:29:00 * Elevation: -5218.0 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: ARK-XXVI/3 (PS78 TransArc) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: CTD/Rosette (CTD-RO)
Comment:
The four profiles between the Siberian shelf/Laptev Sea and the North Pole (79 - 90°N) were sampled during the TransArc ARK XXVI/3 cruise in summer 2011 on the Research Vessel Polarstern and consist of 81 unfiltered acidified (HCl double-distilled, 0.4 %, v:v) samples. Acidification rapidly converts dimethylmercury (DMHg) into monomethylmercury (MMHg), and we thus measured methylmercury (MeHg) as the sum of MMHg and DMHg.
For this study, we applied one of the best known reference methods, isotope dilution (ID), to a high sensitivity coupled gas chromatography - sector field ICP-MS (GC-SF-ICP-MS) method at the GET laboratory. MeHg and inorganic Hg species were extracted after derivatization, following previously published protocols, that we further improved for ultra-trace levels. Briefly, enriched spikes of 199iHg and 201MeHg (ISC Science, Spain) were added to a 115 mL aliquot of the sea water samples, targeting optimal ratios of 8.46 for 199iHgspike/202iHgsample and 4.25 for 201MeHgspike/202MeHgsample. The optimum spike to natural Hg isotope ratios was determined using the uncertainty magnification factor formula. After 24h of equilibration, pH was adjusted to 3.9 with NH3 (ULTREX® II Ultrapure Reagent, J.T. Baker, USA) and a buffer solution made up with acetic acid (glacial, ULTREX® II Ultrapure Reagent, J.T. Baker, USA) / sodium acetate (J.T. Baker, USA). A solution of 1 % (v:v) sodium tetra propyl borate (Merseburger Spezialchemikalien, Germany) was made up freshly, under cold conditions and avoiding contact with atmospheric oxygen. 1 mL of this solution was then added together with 200 µL hexane (Sigma Aldrich, USA). The glass bottles were hermetically sealed with Teflon-lined caps and vigorously shaken for 15 minutes. The organic phase was recovered and injected in the GC (Thermo Trace Ultra). The coupling to the high resolution ICP-MS (Thermo Element XR) and application of ultra-trace clean techniques allowed reaching detection limits as low as 0.001 pM. tHg was measured independently following the USEPA 1631 method at the GET laboratory. Potassium bromide (Sigma Aldrich, USA) and Potassium Bromate (Sigma Aldrich, USA) were heated for 4 h at 250°C to remove Hg traces before making up BrCl solution with freshly double-distilled HCl. We used a custom made semi-automatic single gold trap setup coupled to an cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Brooks Rand Model III, USA), modified with mirrored quartz cuvette (Hellma Optics, Germany ) to achieve a detection limit of 0.025pM.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
Event labelEvent
Date/Time of eventDate/Time
Latitude of eventLatitude
Longitude of eventLongitude
Elevation of eventElevationm
DEPTH, waterDepth watermGeocode
Pressure, waterPressdbarHeimbürger, Lars-Eric
MethylmercuryMeHgpmol/lHeimbürger, Lars-Ericsee commentDimethylmercury (DMHg) plus Monomethylmercury (MMHg)
MercuryHgpmol/lHeimbürger, Lars-Ericsee commenttotal
10 Bottle numberBottleHeimbürger, Lars-Eric
Size:
334 data points

Data

Download dataset as tab-delimited text (use the following character encoding: )


Event

Date/Time

Latitude

Longitude

Elevation [m]

Depth water [m]

Press [dbar]

MeHg [pmol/l]

Hg [pmol/l]
10 
Bottle
PS78/218-2 2011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-41185050.90.0260.65015
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-4118150151.80.0190.4756
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-4118600607.00.1370.76020
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-4118750759.30.0170.57016
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411810001013.00.0300.52015
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411814001419.90.0520.52014
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411818001827.40.0600.49011
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411820002031.50.0720.45010
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411825002542.30.0700.5508
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411830003054.20.0430.5106
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411835003567.40.0480.5105
PS78/218-22011-08-22T11:4289.96450146.63117-411842384327.20.0590.4701
PS78/245-2 2011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337621.80.0342.09024
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-33761110.60.0361.41021
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-33761817.90.0551.20018
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-33765050.60.0810.95015
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-33767575.90.1440.94012
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376100101.10.2000.9209
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376150151.60.2440.9806
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376201202.80.3391.0203
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376249251.90.2660.97019
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376293296.10.2710.94018
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376350354.00.2710.89017
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376400404.70.2800.95016
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376450455.80.2430.90015
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376500506.10.3011.07014
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376600607.00.2710.94013
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376700708.50.2410.97012
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376800810.00.2550.94011
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-3376900912.00.2560.94010
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337610001013.30.2640.8909
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337612001216.60.2440.8708
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337614001420.20.2380.9107
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337616001623.80.1910.8306
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337618001827.80.1710.8405
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337620012031.90.1791.1604
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337625002541.90.1721.1103
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337630003054.40.1890.8002
PS78/245-22011-09-08T22:1584.79450166.41467-337633573420.50.2390.8701
PS78/273-2 2011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521832.90.0291.73024
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-52181010.20.0941.58022
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-52182019.70.1381.33020
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-52185050.60.1821.33019
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218100101.10.2971.41018
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218150151.60.3651.22017
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218200202.00.2401.02016
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218300303.30.2581.27015
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218400404.90.2760.97014
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218500505.80.2001.03013
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218700708.70.2010.98012
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-5218903914.50.2311.23011
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521812001216.30.2490.96010
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521815901613.30.1870.9509
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521819992030.30.1690.9408
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521825012542.90.0921.1907
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521830003053.70.0711.4006
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521835003567.50.0351.3805
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521839864067.40.0241.4204
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521845004597.20.0171.4203
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521849525064.10.0611.4902
PS78/273-22011-09-19T19:2981.35983120.76050-521852165337.10.0401.5201
PS78/280-1 2011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-31211010.30.0046.95021
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-31212525.10.0090.54018
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-31215050.40.62015
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-31217576.10.0240.50012
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121100101.20.0119
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121150151.70.0080.4806
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121200202.60.0220.4803
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121300303.40.0410.69019
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121348351.80.0720.52018
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121400404.70.0350.57017
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121450455.00.0410.50016
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121498503.80.1390.58015
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121600607.40.0220.50014
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121700708.40.0040.46013
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-3121900911.30.0110.49011
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312110001013.10.0150.49010
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312112011216.90.0100.4709
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312114001419.80.0170.5408
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312116001623.60.0170.5007
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312118001827.20.0090.5106
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312125002542.40.0100.5204
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312130003053.90.0110.5303
PS78/280-12011-09-21T05:5979.14733124.12650-312131003156.30.0120.5701