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Hiebenthal, Claas; Philipp, Eva E R; Eisenhauer, Anton; Wahl, Martin (2014): Effects of seawater pCO2 and temperature on shell growth, shell stability, condition and cellular stress of Western Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis (L.) and Arctica islandica (L.). PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838936, Supplement to: Hiebenthal, C et al. (2012): Effects of seawater pCO2 and temperature on shell growth, shell stability, condition and cellular stress of Western Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis (L.) and Arctica islandica (L.). Marine Biology, 160(8), 2073-2087, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-2080-9

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Abstract:
Acidification of the World's oceans may directly impact reproduction, performance and shell formation of marine calcifying organisms. In addition, since shell production is costly and stress in general draws on an organism's energy budget, shell growth and stability of bivalves should indirectly be affected by environmental stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of warming and acidification leads to increased physiological stress (lipofuscin accumulation and mortality) and affects the performance [shell growth, shell breaking force, condition index (Ci)] of young Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica from the Baltic Sea. We cultured the bivalves in a fully-crossed 2-factorial experimental setup (seawater (sw) pCO2 levels "low", "medium" and "high" for both species, temperature levels 7.5, 10, 16, 20 and 25 °C for M. edulis and 7.5, 10 and 16 °C for A. islandica) for 13 weeks in summer. Mytilus edulis and A. islandica appeared to tolerate wide ranges of sw temperature and pCO2. Lipofuscin accumulation of M. edulis increased with temperature while the Ci decreased, but shell growth of the mussels only sharply decreased while its mortality increased between 20 and 25 °C. In A. islandica, lipofuscin accumulation increased with temperature, whereas the Ci, shell growth and shell breaking force decreased. The pCO2 treatment had only marginal effects on the measured parameters of both bivalve species. Shell growth of both bivalve species was not impaired by under-saturation of the sea water with respect to aragonite and calcite. Furthermore, independently of water temperatures shell breaking force of both species and shell growth of A. islandica remained unaffected by the applied elevated sw pCO2 for several months. Only at the highest temperature (25 °C), growth arrest of M. edulis was recorded at the high sw pCO2 treatment and the Ci of M. edulis was slightly higher at the medium sw pCO2 treatment than at the low and high sw pCO2 treatments. The only effect of elevated sw pCO2 on A. islandica was an increase in lipofuscin accumulation at the high sw pCO2 treatment compared to the medium sw pCO2 treatment. Our results show that, despite this robustness, growth of both M. edulis and A. islandica can be reduced if sw temperatures remain high for several weeks in summer. As large body size constitutes an escape from crab and sea star predation, this can make bivalves presumably more vulnerable to predation with possible negative consequences on population growth. In M. edulis, but not in A. islandica, this effect is amplified by elevated sw pCO2. We follow that combined effects of elevated sw pCO2 and ocean warming might cause shifts in future Western Baltic Sea community structures and ecosystem services; however, only if predators or other interacting species do not suffer as strong from these stressors.
Keyword(s):
Animalia; Arctica islandica; Baltic Sea; Benthic animals; Benthos; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20- 1000 L or < 1 m**2); Growth/Morphology; Laboratory experiment; Mollusca; Mortality/Survival; Mytilus edulis; Other studied parameter or process; Single species; Temperate; Temperature
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2014): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-11-12. This study was conducted within the framework of the European Scientific Foundation (ESF)-Project CASIOPEIA and funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) DFG, Project-No. Ei272/20-1/-2.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1SpeciesSpeciesHiebenthal, Claas
2Temperature, waterTemp°CHiebenthal, Claastreatment
3Temperature, waterTemp°CHiebenthal, Claas
4Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmHiebenthal, Claastreatment
5Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmHiebenthal, Claasmeasured
6pHpHHiebenthal, ClaasPotentiometricNBS scale
7ReplicateReplicateHiebenthal, Claas
8Growth rateµmm/dayHiebenthal, Claas
9MassMassmgHiebenthal, Claasgrowth
10Growth rateµmg/dayHiebenthal, Claas
11HeighthmmHiebenthal, Claas2, measured on 2008-07-15
12HeighthmmHiebenthal, Claas5, measured on 2008-10-14
13MortalityMortality%Hiebenthal, Claas
14Fluorescence intensityFluorescenceHiebenthal, Claascoreected by start height2 and time of incubation (weeks)
15Dry massDry mgHiebenthal, Claassoft tissue
16Dry massDry mgHiebenthal, Claasshell
17Condition indexCImg/gHiebenthal, Claas
18Shell breaking forceShell breaking Fg/mm2Hiebenthal, Claas
19Shell breaking force, per shell heightShell breaking F/heightg/mm2/mmHiebenthal, Claas
20Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgHiebenthal, ClaasPotentiometric titration
21Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Hiebenthal, ClaasPotentiometric titration
22Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgHiebenthal, ClaasCoulometric titration
23Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Hiebenthal, ClaasCoulometric titration
24SalinitySalHiebenthal, Claas
25Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Hiebenthal, Claas
26Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
27pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
28Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
29Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
30Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
31Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
32Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
33Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
34Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
3196 data points

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