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Holtappels, Moritz; Noss, Christian; Hancke, Kasper; Cathalot, Cecile; McGinnis, Daniel F; Lorke, Andreas; Glud, Ronnie N (2014): Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor and oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838341, Supplement to: Holtappels, M et al. (2015): Aquatic Eddy Correlation: Quantifying the Artificial Flux Caused by Stirring-Sensitive O2 Sensors. PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0116564, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116564

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Abstract:
In the last decade, the aquatic eddy correlation (EC) technique has proven to be a powerful approach for non-invasive measurements of oxygen fluxes across the sediment water interface. Fundamental to the EC approach is the correlation of turbulent velocity and oxygen concentration fluctuations measured with high frequencies in the same sampling volume. Oxygen concentrations are commonly measured with fast responding electrochemical microsensors. However, due to their own oxygen consumption, electrochemical microsensors are sensitive to changes of the diffusive boundary layer surrounding the probe and thus to changes in the ambient flow velocity. The so-called stirring sensitivity of microsensors constitutes an inherent correlation of flow velocity and oxygen sensing and thus an artificial flux which can confound the benthic flux determination. To assess the artificial flux we measured the correlation between the turbulent flow velocity and the signal of oxygen microsensors in a sealed annular flume without any oxygen sinks and sources. Experiments revealed significant correlations, even for sensors designed to have low stirring sensitivities of ~0.7%. The artificial fluxes depended on ambient flow conditions and, counter intuitively, increased at higher velocities because of the nonlinear contribution of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The measured artificial fluxes ranged from 2 - 70 mmol m**-2 d**-1 for weak and very strong turbulent flow, respectively. Further, the stirring sensitivity depended on the sensor orientation towards the flow. Optical microsensors (optodes) that should not exhibit a stirring sensitivity were tested in parallel and did not show any significant correlation between O2 signals and turbulent flow. In conclusion, EC data obtained with electrochemical sensors can be affected by artificial flux and we recommend using optical microsensors in future EC-studies.
Flume experiments were conducted in February 2013 at the Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau Landau. Experiments were performed in a closed oval-shaped acrylic glass flume with cross-sectional width of 4 cm and height of 10 cm and total length of 54 cm. The fluid flow was induced by a propeller driven by a motor and mean flow velocities of up to 20 cm s-1 were generated by applying voltages between 0 V and 4 V DC. The flume was completely sealed with an acrylic glass cover. Oxygen sensors were inserted through rubber seal fittings and allowed positioning the sensors with inclinations to the main flow direction of ~60°, ~95° and ~135°. A Clark type electrochemical O2 microsensor with a low stirring sensitivity (0.7%) was tested and a fast-responding needle-type O2 optode (PyroScience GmbH, Germany) was used as reference as optodes should not be stirring sensitive.
Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were measured at 7.4 Hz using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity at the sensor tip was extracted. The correlation of the fluctuating O2 sensor signals and the fluctuating velocities was quantified with a cross-correlation analysis. A significant cross-correlation is equivalent to a significant artificial flux.
For a total of 18 experiments the flow velocity was adjusted between 1.7 and 19.2 cm s**-1, and 3 different orientations of the electrochemical sensor were tested with inclination angles of ~60°, ~95° and ~135° with respect to the main flow direction. In experiments 16-18, wavelike flow was induced, whereas in all other experiments the motor was driven by constant voltages. In 7 experiments, O2 was additionally measured by optodes. Although performed simultaneously with the electrochemical sensor, optode measurements are listed as separate experiments (denoted by the attached 'op' in the filename), because the velocity time series was extracted at the optode tip, located at a different position in the flume.
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Datasets listed in this publication series

  1. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 1) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838439
  2. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 10) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838430
  3. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 11) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838429
  4. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 12) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838428
  5. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 12op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838417
  6. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 13) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838427
  7. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 13op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838416
  8. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 14) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838426
  9. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 14op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838415
  10. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 15) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838425
  11. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 15op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838414
  12. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 16) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838424
  13. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 17) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838423
  14. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 18) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838422
  15. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 1op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838420
  16. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 2) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838438
  17. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 3) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838437
  18. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 3op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838419
  19. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 4) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838436
  20. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 4op) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using oxygen optodes in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838418
  21. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 5) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838435
  22. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 6) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838434
  23. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 7) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838433
  24. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 8) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838432
  25. Holtappels, M; Noss, C; Hancke, K et al. (2014): (Exp. 9) Artificial oxygen fluxes measured by the eddy correlation method using stirring-sensitive oxygen microsensor in a flume experiment. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.838431