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Appelhans, Yasmin S; Thomsen, Jörn; Opitz, Stephan; Pansch, Christian; Melzner, Frank; Wahl, Martin (2014): Juvenile sea stars exposed to acidification decrease feeding and growth with no acclimation potential. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.836847,
Supplement to: Appelhans, YS et al. (2014): Juvenile sea stars exposed to acidification decrease feeding and growth with no acclimation potential. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 509, 227-239, doi:10.3354/meps10884

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Abstract:
Ocean acidification has the potential to affect growth and calcification of benthic marine invertebrates, particularly during their early life history. We exposed field-collected juveniles of Asterias rubens from Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) to 3 seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) levels (ranging from around 650 to 3500 µatm) in a long-term (39 wk) and a short-term (6 wk) experiment. In both experiments, survival and calcification were not affected by elevated pCO2. However, feeding rates decreased strongly with increasing pCO2, while aerobic metabolism and NH4+ excretion were not significantly affected by CO2 exposure. Consequently, high pCO2 reduced the scope for growth in A. rubens. Growth rates decreased substantially with increasing pCO2 and were reduced even at pCO2 levels occurring in the habitat today (e.g. during upwelling events). Sea stars were not able to acclimate to higher pCO2, and growth performance did not recover during the long-term experiment. Therefore, the top-down control exerted by this keystone species may be diminished during periods of high environmental pCO2 that already occur occasionally and will be even higher in the future. However, some individuals were able to grow at high rates even at high pCO2, indicating potential for rapid adaption. The selection of adapted specimens of A. rubens in this seasonally acidified habitat may lead to higher CO2 tolerance in adult sea stars of this population compared to the juvenile stage. Future studies need to address the synergistic effects of multiple stressors such as acidification, warming and reduced salinity, which will simultaneously impact the performance of sea stars in this habitat.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2014): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-10-17.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1FigureFigThomsen, Jörn
2ExperimentExpThomsen, Jörn
3Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmThomsen, Jörntreatment
4Incubation durationInc durweeksThomsen, Jörn
5MassMassgThomsen, Jörnfresh
6Confidence intervalCIThomsen, Jörn95%, fresh mass
7Food consumptionFood conmg/dayThomsen, JörnMytilus edulis
8Confidence intervalCIThomsen, Jörn95%, food consumption
9SizeSizemmThomsen, Jörn
10IndividualsInd#Thomsen, Jörnconsumed mussels
11Confidence intervalCIThomsen, Jörn95%, number of consumed mussels
12Food consumptionFood conmg/weekThomsen, JörnMytilus edulis
13Confidence intervalCIThomsen, Jörn95%, food consumption
14Scope for growthSfGJThomsen, Jörn
15Confidence intervalCIThomsen, Jörn95%, scope for growth
16Energy, work, quantity of heatEnergyJThomsen, Jörnequivalent to sea star growth
17Energy, work, quantity of heatEnergyJThomsen, Jörnequivalent of consumed mussels
18Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgThomsen, JörnCoulometric titration
19Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Thomsen, JörnCoulometric titration
20pHpHThomsen, JörnPotentiometrictotal scale
21pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Thomsen, JörnPotentiometrictotal scale
22Temperature, waterTemp°CThomsen, Jörn
23Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Thomsen, Jörn
24SalinitySalThomsen, Jörn
25Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Thomsen, Jörn
26Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmThomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
27Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Thomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
28Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgThomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
29Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Thomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
30Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgThomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
31Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Thomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
32Calcite saturation stateOmega CalThomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
33Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Thomsen, JörnCalculated using CO2SYS
34Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
35Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
36Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
4215 data points

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