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Sett, Scarlett; Bach, Lennart Thomas; Schulz, Kai Georg; Koch-Klavsen, Signe; Lebrato, Mario; Riebesell, Ulf (2014): Temperature modulates coccolithophorid sensitivity of growth, photosynthesis and calcification to increasing seawater pCO2. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Sett, S et al. (2014): Temperature Modulates Coccolithophorid Sensitivity of Growth, Photosynthesis and Calcification to Increasing Seawater pCO2. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88308,

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Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to impact pelagic ecosystem functioning in the near future by driving ocean warming and acidification. While numerous studies have investigated impacts of rising temperature and seawater acidification on planktonic organisms separately, little is presently known on their combined effects. To test for possible synergistic effects we exposed two coccolithophore species, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, to a CO2 gradient ranging from ~0.5-250 µmol/kg (i.e. ~20-6000 µatm pCO2) at three different temperatures (i.e. 10, 15, 20°C for E. huxleyi and 15, 20, 25°C for G. oceanica). Both species showed CO2-dependent optimum-curve responses for growth, photosynthesis and calcification rates at all temperatures. Increased temperature generally enhanced growth and production rates and modified sensitivities of metabolic processes to increasing CO2. CO2 optimum concentrations for growth, calcification, and organic carbon fixation rates were only marginally influenced from low to intermediate temperatures. However, there was a clear optimum shift towards higher CO2 concentrations from intermediate to high temperatures in both species. Our results demonstrate that the CO2 concentration where optimum growth, calcification and carbon fixation rates occur is modulated by temperature. Thus, the response of a coccolithophore strain to ocean acidification at a given temperature can be negative, neutral or positive depending on that strain's temperature optimum. This emphasizes that the cellular responses of coccolithophores to ocean acidification can only be judged accurately when interpreted in the proper eco-physiological context of a given strain or species. Addressing the synergistic effects of changing carbonate chemistry and temperature is an essential step when assessing the success of coccolithophores in the future ocean.
Bottles or small containers/Aquaria (<20 L); Calcification/Dissolution; Chromista; Emiliania huxleyi; Gephyrocapsa oceanica; Growth/Morphology; Haptophyta; Laboratory experiment; Laboratory strains; North Atlantic; Pelagos; Phytoplankton; Primary production/Photosynthesis; Single species; Temperature
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2014): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0.
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-08-26.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1SpeciesSpeciesSett, Scarlett
2Temperature, waterTemp°CSett, Scarlett
3Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgSett, Scarlett
4Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmSett, ScarlettCalculated using CO2SYS
5Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgSett, ScarlettPotentiometric titration
6Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgSett, ScarlettCalculated
7pHpHSett, ScarlettCalculated using CO2SYSfree scale
8Calcite saturation stateOmega CalSett, ScarlettCalculated using CO2SYS
9Growth rateµ1/daySett, Scarlett
10Production of particulate organic carbon per cellPOC prodpg/#/daySett, Scarlett
11Particulate inorganic carbon production per cellPIC prodpg/#/daySett, Scarlett
12Particulate inorganic carbon/particulate organic carbon ratioPIC/POCSett, Scarlett
13SalinitySalSett, Scarlett
14Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
15pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
16Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
17Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
18Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
19Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
20Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
21Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
22Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
1958 data points

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