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Bray, Laura; Pancucci-Papadopulou, M A; Hall-Spencer, Jason M (2014): Sea urchin response to rising pCO2 shows ocean acidification may fundamentally alter the chemistry of marine skeletons. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.834210, Supplement to: Bray, L et al. (2014): Sea urchin response to rising pCO2 shows ocean acidification may fundamentally alter the chemistry of marine skeletons. Mediterranean Marine Science, 15(3), 510-519, doi:10.12681/mms.579

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Abstract:
Ocean acidification caused by an increase in pCO2 is expected to drastically affect marine ecosystem composition, yet there is much uncertainty about the mechanisms through which ecosystems may be affected. Here we studied sea urchins that are common and important grazers in the Mediterranean (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). Our study included a natural CO2 seep plus reference sites in the Aegean Sea off Greece. The distribution of A. lixula was unaffected by the low pH environment, whereas densities of P. lividus were much reduced. There was skeletal degradation in both species living in acidified waters compared to reference sites and remarkable increases in skeletal manganese levels (P. lividus had a 541% increase, A. lixula a 243% increase), presumably due to changes in mineral crystalline structure. Levels of strontium and zinc were also altered. It is not yet known whether such dramatic changes in skeletal chemistry will affect coastal systems but our study reveals a mechanism that may alter inter-species interactions.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2014): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 37.644325 * Median Longitude: 23.637834 * South-bound Latitude: 37.637850 * West-bound Longitude: 23.357911 * North-bound Latitude: 37.653088 * East-bound Longitude: 24.023764
Date/Time Start: 2012-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-09-30T00:00:00
Event(s):
Hellenic_Volcanic_Arc * Latitude: 37.633330 * Longitude: 23.366670 * Date/Time Start: 2012-05-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2012-09-30T00:00:00 * Device: Experiment (EXP)
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-07-22.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1SiteSiteBray, Laura
2LATITUDELatitudeGeocode
3LONGITUDELongitudeGeocode
4DateDateBray, Laura
5SpeciesSpeciesBray, Laura
6IndividualsInd#Bray, Lauraper 7.5 m**2
7ArsenicAsmg/kgBray, Laura
8BromineBrmg/kgBray, Laura
9CeriumCemg/kgBray, Laura
10ChromiumCrmg/kgBray, Laura
11CopperCumg/kgBray, Laura
12HafniumHfmg/kgBray, Laura
13ManganeseMnmg/kgBray, Laura
14MolybdenumMomg/kgBray, Laura
15NickelNimg/kgBray, Laura
16RubidiumRbmg/kgBray, Laura
17TinSnmg/kgBray, Laura
18StrontiumSrmg/kgBray, Laura
19TelluriumTemg/kgBray, Laura
20ThoriumThmg/kgBray, Laura
21YttriumYmg/kgBray, Laura
22ZincZnmg/kgBray, Laura
23Calcium oxideCaOmg/kgBray, Laura
24Iron oxideFe2O3mg/kgBray, Laura
25Calcium oxideCaO%Bray, Laura
26Iron oxide, Fe2O3Fe2O3%Bray, Laura
27pHpHBray, LauraPotentiometricNBS scale, mean
28pH, standard errorpH std e±Bray, LauraPotentiometric
29Temperature, waterTemp°CBray, Lauramean
30Temperature, water, standard errorT std e±Bray, Laura
31SalinitySalBray, Lauramean
32Salinity, standard errorSal std e±Bray, Laura
33Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmBray, LauraCalculated using CO2SYSmean
34Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air), standard errorpCO2water_SST_wet std e±Bray, LauraCalculated using CO2SYS
35Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgBray, LauraPotentiometric titrationmean
36Alkalinity, total, standard errorAT std e±Bray, LauraPotentiometric titration
37Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38pHpHYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)total scale
39Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
45Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
46Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
3851 data points

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