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Lischka, Silke; Riebesell, Ulf (2012): Synergistic effects of ocean acidification and warming on overwintering pteropods in the Arctic. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.832422,
Supplement to: Lischka, S; Riebesell, U (2012): Synergistic effects of ocean acidification and warming on overwintering pteropods in the Arctic. Global Change Biology, 18(12), 3517-3528, doi:10.1111/gcb.12020

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Abstract:
Ocean acidification and warming will be most pronounced in the Arctic Ocean. Aragonite shell-bearing pteropods in the Arctic are expected to be among the first species to suffer from ocean acidification. Carbonate undersaturation in the Arctic will first occur in winter and because this period is also characterized by low food availability, the overwintering stages of polar pteropods may develop into a bottleneck in their life cycle. The impacts of ocean acidification and warming on growth, shell degradation (dissolution), and mortality of two thecosome pteropods, the polar Limacina helicina and the boreal L. retroversa, were studied for the first time during the Arctic winter in the Kongsfjord (Svalbard). The abundance of L. helicina and L. retroversa varied from 23.5 to 120 ind /m2 and 12 to 38 ind /m2, and the mean shell size ranged from 920 to 981 µm and 810 to 823 µm, respectively. Seawater was aragonite-undersaturated at the overwintering depths of pteropods on two out of ten days of our observations. A 7-day experiment [temperature levels: 2 and 7 °C, pCO2 levels: 350, 650 (only for L. helicina) and 880 ?atm] revealed a significant pCO2 effect on shell degradation in both species, and synergistic effects between temperature and pCO2 for L. helicina. A comparison of live and dead specimens kept under the same experimental conditions indicated that both species were capable of actively reducing the impacts of acidification on shell dissolution. A higher vulnerability to increasing pCO2 and temperature during the winter season is indicated compared with a similar study from fall 2009. Considering the species winter phenology and the seasonal changes in carbonate chemistry in Arctic waters, negative climate change effects on Arctic thecosomes are likely to show up first during winter, possibly well before ocean acidification effects become detectable during the summer season.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Epitalon, Jean-Marie; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2014): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 3.0. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Coverage:
Date/Time Start: 2010-01-29T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-02-26T00:00:00
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne et al, 2014) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation is 2014-05-08.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1DATE/TIMEDate/TimeGeocode
2SpeciesSpeciesLischka, Silke
3Abundance per volumeAbund v#/m3Lischka, Silke
4LengthlµmLischka, SilkeShell length
5ReplicateReplicateLischka, Silke
6Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmLischka, SilkeTarget pCO2
7Temperature, waterTemp°CLischka, SilkeTarget T
8MortalityMortality%Lischka, Silke
9Sample code/labelLabelLischka, Silke
10StatusStatusLischka, Silkealive/dead
11CategoryCatLischka, SilkeShell degradation category (milky: 0=clear, 1=slight, 2=medium, 3=strong, 4=very strong)
12CategoryCatLischka, SilkeShell degradation category (brownish: 0=no, 1=slight, 2=medium, 3=strong, 4=very strong)
13CategoryCatLischka, SilkeShell degradation category (brownish: 0=no, 1=slight, 2=medium, 3=strong, 4=very strong)
14CategoryCatLischka, SilkeShell degradation category (Corrosion: 0=no , 1=slight, 2=medium, 3=strong, 4=very strong)
15CategoryCatLischka, SilkeShell degradation category (Perforations: 0=no , 1=slight (1_2 perforations), 2=medium (3_4 perforations), 3=strong (> 5 perforations))
16SalinitySalLischka, Silke
17Temperature, waterTemp°CLischka, Silkestart
18Temperature, waterTemp°CLischka, Silkeend
19Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgLischka, Silkestart
20Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgLischka, Silkeend
21pHpHLischka, Silketotal scale, start
22pHpHLischka, Silketotal scale, end
23Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgLischka, Silkestart
24Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgLischka, Silkeend
25Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmLischka, Silkestart
26Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmLischka, Silkeend
27Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgLischka, Silkestart
28Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgLischka, Silkeend
29SilicateSILCATµmol/kgLischka, Silkestart
30SilicateSILCATµmol/kgLischka, Silkeend
31PhosphatePHSPHTµmol/kgLischka, Silkestart
32PhosphatePHSPHTµmol/kgLischka, Silkeend
33Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
34Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
35Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
36Fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawaterfCO2wµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
37Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
38Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
39Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
40Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
41Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)start
42Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
43Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
44Fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawaterfCO2wµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
45Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
46Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
47Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
48Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
49Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)end
Size:
8971 data points

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