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Pansch, Christian; Schaub, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N; Wahl, Martin (2014): Habitat traits and food availability determine the response of marine invertebrates to ocean acidification. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.831428,
Supplement to: Pansch, Christian; Schaub, Matthias; Havenhand, Jon N; Wahl, Martin (2014): Habitat traits and food availability determine the response of marine invertebrates to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 20(3), 765-777, doi:10.1111/gcb.12478

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Abstract:
Energy availability and local adaptation are major components in mediating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine species. In a long-term study, we investigated the effects of food availability and elevated pCO2 (ca 400, 1000 and 3000 µatm) on growth of newly settled Amphibalanus (Balanus) improvisus to reproduction, and on their offspring. We also compared two different populations, which were presumed to differ in their sensitivity to pCO2 due to differing habitat conditions: Kiel Fjord, Germany (Western Baltic Sea) with naturally strong pCO2 fluctuations, and the Tjärnö Archipelago, Sweden (Skagerrak) with far lower fluctuations. Over 20 weeks, survival, growth, reproduction and shell strength of Kiel barnacles were all unaffected by elevated pCO2, regardless of food availability. Moulting frequency and shell corrosion increased with increasing pCO2 in adults. Larval development and juvenile growth of the F1 generation were tolerant to increased pCO2, irrespective of parental treatment. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had a strong negative impact on survival of Tjärnö barnacles. Specimens from this population were able to withstand moderate levels of elevated pCO2 over 5 weeks when food was plentiful but showed reduced growth under food limitation. Severe levels of elevated pCO2 negatively impacted growth of Tjärnö barnacles in both food treatments. We demonstrate a conspicuously higher tolerance to elevated pCO2 in Kiel barnacles than in Tjärnö barnacles. This tolerance was carried-over from adults to their offspring. Our findings indicate that populations from fluctuating pCO2 environments are more tolerant to elevated pCO2 than populations from more stable pCO2 habitats. We furthermore provide evidence that energy availability can mediate the ability of barnacles to withstand moderate CO2 stress. Considering the high tolerance of Kiel specimens and the possibility to adapt over many generations, near future OA alone does not seem to present a major threat for A. improvisus
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2014-04-03.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1SpeciesSpeciesPansch, Christian
2FigureFigPansch, Christian
3LocationLocationPansch, Christian
4TreatmentTreatPansch, Christian
5MortalityMortalityPansch, Christianmortality (ind/week)
6Time in daysTimedaysPansch, Christian
7SizeSizemmPansch, Christian
8Condition indexCIPansch, Christian
9FrequencyFrequency%Pansch, ChristianMoulting frequency (%)
10ReproductionReproductionPansch, Christian
11Calcification rate of calcium carbonateCalc rate CaCO3µmol/g/hPansch, ChristianNet Calc Rate G (µmol CaCO3 /gDW/h)
12ForceFkgfPansch, Christian
13NumberNoPansch, ChristianAquarium
14LengthlmmPansch, Christian
15Bottle numberBottlePansch, Christian
16Larvae, settledLarvae sett%Pansch, ChristianLarval settlement (%)
17GrowthGrowth%Pansch, Christianjuvenile growth (%)
18Temperature, waterTemp°CPansch, Christian
19Temperature, water, standard deviationTemp std dev±Pansch, Christian
20SalinitySalPansch, Christian
21Salinity, standard deviationSal std dev±Pansch, Christian
22pHpHPansch, ChristianNBS scale
23pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Pansch, ChristianNBS scale
24pHpHPansch, Christiantotal scale
25pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Pansch, Christiantotal scale
26Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgPansch, Christian
27Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Pansch, Christian
28Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgPansch, Christian
29Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Pansch, Christian
30Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmPansch, Christian
31Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, standard deviationpCO2 std dev±Pansch, Christian
32Calcite saturation stateOmega CalPansch, Christian
33Calcite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Cal std dev±Pansch, Christian
34Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgPansch, Christian
35Aragonite saturation state, standard deviationOmega Arg std dev±Pansch, Christian
36Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
37Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
39Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
40Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
41Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
42Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
43Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
43646 data points

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