Data Description

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Esper, O; Gersonde, R (2014): Diatom abundance in surface sediments of the Southern Ocean. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828674,
Supplement to: Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer (2014): New tools for the reconstruction of Pleistocene Antarctic sea ice. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 399, 260-283, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.01.019
Based on the quantitative analysis of diatom assemblages preserved in 274 surface sediment samples recovered in the Pacific, Atlantic and western Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean we have defined a new reference database for quantitative estimation of late-middle Pleistocene Antarctic sea ice fields using the transfer function technique. The Detrended Canonical Analysis (DCA) of the diatom data set points to a unimodal distribution of the diatom assemblages. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicates that winter sea ice (WSI) but also summer sea surface temperature (SSST) represent the most prominent environmental variables that control the spatial species distribution. To test the applicability of transfer functions for sea ice reconstruction in terms of concentration and occurrence probability we applied four different methods, the Imbrie and Kipp Method (IKM), the Modern Analog Technique (MAT), Weighted Averaging (WA), and Weighted Averaging Partial Least Squares (WAPLS), using logarithm-transformed diatom data and satellite-derived (1981-2010) sea ice data as a reference. The best performance for IKM results was obtained using a subset of 172 samples with 28 diatom taxa/taxa groups, quadratic regression and a three-factor model (IKM-D172/28/3q) resulting in root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 7.27% and 11.4% for WSI and summer sea ice (SSI) concentration, respectively. MAT estimates were calculated with different numbers of analogs (4, 6) using a 274-sample/28-taxa reference data set (MAT-D274/28/4an, -6an) resulting in RMSEP's ranging from 5.52% (4an) to 5.91% (6an) for WSI as well as 8.93% (4an) to 9.05% (6an) for SSI. WA and WAPLS performed less well with the D274 data set, compared to MAT, achieving WSI concentration RMSEP's of 9.91% with WA and 11.29% with WAPLS, recommending the use of IKM and MAT. The application of IKM and MAT to surface sediment data revealed strong relations to the satellite-derived winter and summer sea ice field. Sea ice reconstructions performed on an Atlantic- and a Pacific Southern Ocean sediment core, both documenting sea ice variability over the past 150,000 years (MIS 1 - MIS 6), resulted in similar glacial/interglacial trends of IKM and MAT-based sea-ice estimates. On the average, however, IKM estimates display smaller WSI and slightly higher SSI concentration and probability at lower variability in comparison with MAT. This pattern is a result of different estimation techniques with integration of WSI and SSI signals in one single factor assemblage by applying IKM and selecting specific single samples, thus keeping close to the original diatom database and included variability, by MAT. In contrast to the estimation of WSI, reconstructions of past SSI variability remains weaker. Combined with diatom-based estimates, the abundance and flux pattern of biogenic opal represents an additional indication for the WSI and SSI extent.
Related to:
Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer (2014): Quaternary surface water temperature estimations: New diatom transfer functions for the Southern Ocean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 414, 1-19, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.08.008 *
Median Latitude: -57.934039 * Median Longitude: -72.114875 * South-bound Latitude: -74.415300 * West-bound Longitude: -179.009600 * North-bound Latitude: -37.158300 * East-bound Longitude: 25.212600
Date/Time Start: 2000-02-17T20:49:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-01-20T11:20:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: m
GeoB6403-4 * * Latitude: -40.013300 * Longitude: -23.365200 * Date/Time: 2000-02-17T20:49:00 * Elevation: -4226.0 m * Recovery: 0.14 m * Location: Central South Atlantic * * Campaign: M46/4 * * Basis: Meteor (1986) * * Device: MultiCorer (MUC) * * Comment: 4 large, 4 small tubes filled
GeoB6404-3 * * Latitude: -41.505800 * Longitude: -23.464800 * Date/Time: 2000-02-18T10:17:00 * Elevation: -4223.0 m * Recovery: 0.11 m * Location: Central South Atlantic * * Campaign: M46/4 * * Basis: Meteor (1986) * * Device: MultiCorer (MUC) * * Comment: 4 large, 4 small tubes filled, CTD at 50 m
GeoB6405-8 * * Latitude: -42.000000 * Longitude: -21.853200 * Date/Time: 2000-02-19T07:20:00 * Elevation: -3863.0 m * Recovery: 0.3 m * Location: Central South Atlantic * * Campaign: M46/4 * * Basis: Meteor (1986) * * Device: MultiCorer (MUC) * * Comment: all tubes filled, IRD/dropstones
Data are accessible on request:
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event label *Event
2Latitude of event *Latitude
3Longitude of event *Longitude
4Elevation of event *Elevationm
5DEPTH, sediment/rock *DepthmGeocode
6Actinocyclus actinochilus *A. actinochilus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
7Actinocyclus curvatulus *A. curvatulus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
8Alveus marinus *A. marinus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
9Asteromphalus hookeri *A. hookeri%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
10Asteromphalus hyalinus *A. hyalinus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
11Asteromphalus parvulus *A. parvulus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
12Azpeitia tabularis var. tabularis *A. tabularis var. tabularis%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
13Azpeitia tabularis var egregius *A. tabularis var. egregius%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
14Chaetoceros spp. *Chaetoceros spp.%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
15Corethron pennatum *C. pennatum%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
16Eucampia antarctica *E. antarctica%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
17Fragilariopsis curta *F. curta%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
18Fragilariopsis cylindrus *F. cylindrus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
19Fragilariopsis doliolus *F. doliolus%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
20Fragilariopsis kerguelensis *F. kerguelensis%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
21Fragilariopsis obliquecostata *F. obliquecostata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
22Fragilariopsis rhombica *F. rhombica%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
23Fragilariopsis ritscheri *F. ritscheri%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
24Fragilariopsis separanda *F. separanda%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
25Fragilariopsis sublinearis *F. sublinearis%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
26Fragilariopsis vanheurckii *F. vanheurckii%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
27Hemidiscus cuneiformis *H. cuneiformis%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
28Nitzschia bicapitata *N. bicapitata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
29Navicula directa *N. directa%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
30Nitzschia kolaczeckii *N. kolaczeckii%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
31Porosira pseudodenticulata *P. pseudodenticulata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
32Pseudo-nitzschia turgiduloides *P-n turgiduloides%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
33Rhizosolenia antennata forma antennata *R. antennata f antennata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
34Rhizosolenia antennata forma semispina *R. antennata f semispina%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
35Rhizosolenia bergonii *R. bergonii%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
36Rhizosolenia sp. *Rhizosolenia sp.%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *sp. A
37Rhizosolenia spp. *Rhizosolenia spp.%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
38Roperia tesselata *R. tesselata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
39Stellarima microtrias *S. microtrias%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
40Stellarima stellaris *S. stellaris%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
41Thalassionema nitzschioides forma 1 *T. nitzschioides f 1%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
42Thalassionema nitzschioides var. capitulata *T. nitzschioides var. capitulata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
43Thalassionema nitzschioides var. lanceolata *T. nitzschioides var. lanceolata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
44Thalassionema nitzschioides var. parva *T. nitzschioides var. parva%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
45Thalassionema spp. *Thalassionema spp.%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
46Thalassiosira antarctica *T. antarctica%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
47Thalassiosira eccentrica *T. eccentrica%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
48Thalassiosira gracilis var. expecta *T. gracilis var. expecta%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
49Thalassiosira gracilis var. gracilis *T. gracilis var. gracilis%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
50Thalassiosira gravida *T. gravida%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
51Thalassiosira lentiginosa *T. lentiginosa%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
52Thalassiosira lineata *T. lineata%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
53Thalassiosira oestrupii *T. oestrupii%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
54Thalassiosira oliverana *T. oliverana%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
55Thalassiosira spp. *Thalassiosira spp.%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
56Thalassiosira symmetrica *T. symmetrica%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
57Thalassiosira trifulta *T. trifulta%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
58Thalassiosira tumida *T. tumida%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
59Thalassiothrix antarctica/longissima group *T. antarc/long gr%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
60Diatoms indeterminata *Diatoms indet%Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
61Diatoms *Diatoms#Esper, Oliver *Counting, diatoms *
4480 data points

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