Data Description

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Citation:
Gao, K et al. (2012): Rising CO2 and increased light exposure synergistically reduce marine primary productivity. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.821019,
Supplement to: Gao, Kunshan; Xu, Juntian; Gao, Guang; Li, Yahe; Hutchins, David A; Huang, Bangqin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Ying; Jin, Peng; Cai, Xiaoni; Häder, Donat-Peter; Li, Wei; Xu, Kai; Liu, Nana; Riebesell, Ulf (2012): Rising CO2 and increased light exposure synergistically reduce marine primary productivity. Nature Climate Change, 2, 519-523, doi:10.1038/nclimate1507
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide and light are two major prerequisites of photosynthesis. Rising CO2 levels in oceanic surface waters in combination with ample light supply are therefore often considered stimulatory to marine primary production. Here we show that the combination of an increase in both CO2 and light exposure negatively impacts photosynthesis and growth of marine primary producers. When exposed to CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, natural phytoplankton assemblages of the South China Sea responded with decreased primary production and increased light stress at light intensities representative of the upper surface layer. The phytoplankton community shifted away from diatoms, the dominant phytoplankton group during our field campaigns. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses, we grew diatoms at different CO2 concentrations and under varying levels (5-100%) of solar radiation experienced by the phytoplankton at different depths of the euphotic zone. Above 22-36% of incident surface irradiance, growth rates in the high-CO2-grown cells were inversely related to light levels and exhibited reduced thresholds at which light becomes inhibitory. Future shoaling of upper-mixed-layer depths will expose phytoplankton to increased mean light intensities. In combination with rising CO2 levels, this may cause a widespread decline in marine primary production and a community shift away from diatoms, the main algal group that supports higher trophic levels and carbon export in the ocean.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb *
Project(s):
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 21.050000 * Median Longitude: 116.166667 * South-bound Latitude: 18.000000 * West-bound Longitude: 113.000000 * North-bound Latitude: 30.000000 * East-bound Longitude: 124.500000
Date/Time Start: 2011-05-15T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-05-23T00:00:00
Minimum Elevation: -2.0 m * Maximum Elevation: 0.0 m
Event(s):
A4_SCS * * Latitude: 20.800000 * Longitude: 115.200000 * Date/Time Start: 2010-10-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-11-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * * Device: In situ sampler (ISS) *
C3_SCS * * Latitude: 20.600000 * Longitude: 114.200000 * Date/Time Start: 2011-04-30T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-05-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * * Device: In situ sampler (ISS) *
E606_SCS * * Latitude: 18.900000 * Longitude: 114.100000 * Date/Time Start: 2010-10-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-11-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * * Device: In situ sampler (ISS) *
+
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2013-10-31.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event label *Event
2Figure *FigGao, Kunshan *
3Treatment *TreatmGao, Kunshan *
4DATE/TIME *Date/TimeGeocode
5Time of day *Time of dayGao, Kunshan *
6Irradiance *EµE/m2/sGao, Kunshan *
7Non photochemical quenching, standard deviation *NPQ std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
8Duration *DurationhGao, Kunshan *Incubation time
9Season *SeasonGao, Kunshan *
10Species *SpeciesGao, Kunshan *
11Irradiance *EµE/m2/sGao, Kunshan *Daytime mean PAR
12Irradiance, standard deviation *E std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
13Growth rate *µ1/dayGao, Kunshan *
14Growth rate, standard deviation *µ std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
15Yield ratio *Yield ratioGao, Kunshan *High to low pCO2
16Non photochemical quenching *NPQGao, Kunshan *
17Non photochemical quenching, standard deviation *NPQ std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
18Primary production of carbon, per volume of seawater *PP C sw%Gao, Kunshan *
19Primary production of carbon, standard deviation *PP C std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Per volume of sea water
20Primary production of carbon, per chlorophyll a *PP C chl a%Gao, Kunshan *
21Primary production of carbon, standard deviation *PP C std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Per volume of chl a
22Temperature, water *Temp°CGao, Kunshan *in situ
23pH *pHGao, Kunshan *in situ
24Phosphate *PO4µmol/lGao, Kunshan *
25Irradiance *EµE/m2/sGao, Kunshan *Solar PAR during 14C-traced incubations
26Chlorophyll a *Chl aµg/lGao, Kunshan *Surface seawater
27Chlorophyll a *Chl aµg/lGao, Kunshan *Concentration of phytoplankton assemblages grown for 6-7 days, in the microcosms at station PN07 was not measured
28Primary production of carbon *PP Cµg/l/hGao, Kunshan *Phytoplankton assemblages grown in the low CO2 microcosms at the end (day 7) of the growth-out in the microcosms
29Primary production of carbon, standard deviation *PP C std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
30Temperature, water *Temp°CGao, Kunshan *
31Salinity *SalGao, Kunshan *
32pH *pHGao, Kunshan *Potentiometric *total scale
33pH, standard deviation *pH std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Potentiometric *total scale
34Alkalinity, total *ATµmol/kgGao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
35Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
36Carbon, inorganic, dissolved *DICµmol/kgGao, Kunshan *
37Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviation *DIC std dev±Gao, Kunshan *
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmGao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
39Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgGao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
40Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation *[HCO3]- std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
41Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgGao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
42Carbonate ion, standard deviation *[CO3]2- std dev±Gao, Kunshan *Calculated using CO2SYS *
43Carbonate system computation flag *CSC flagYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
44Carbon dioxide *CO2µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
45Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
46Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air) *fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
47Bicarbonate ion *[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
48Carbonate ion *[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
49Alkalinity, total, standard deviation *AT std dev±Yang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
50Aragonite saturation state *Omega ArgYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
51Calcite saturation state *Omega CalYang, Yan *Calculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010) *
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