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Gao, Kunshan; Xu, Juntian; Gao, Guang; Li, Yahe; Hutchins, David A; Huang, Bangqin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Ying; Jin, Peng; Cai, Xiaoni; Häder, Donat-Peter; Li, Wei; Xu, Kai; Liu, Nana; Riebesell, Ulf (2012): Rising CO2 and increased light exposure synergistically reduce marine primary productivity. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.821019,
Supplement to: Gao, K et al. (2012): Rising CO2 and increased light exposure synergistically reduce marine primary productivity. Nature Climate Change, 2, 519-523, doi:10.1038/nclimate1507

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Abstract:
Carbon dioxide and light are two major prerequisites of photosynthesis. Rising CO2 levels in oceanic surface waters in combination with ample light supply are therefore often considered stimulatory to marine primary production. Here we show that the combination of an increase in both CO2 and light exposure negatively impacts photosynthesis and growth of marine primary producers. When exposed to CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, natural phytoplankton assemblages of the South China Sea responded with decreased primary production and increased light stress at light intensities representative of the upper surface layer. The phytoplankton community shifted away from diatoms, the dominant phytoplankton group during our field campaigns. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses, we grew diatoms at different CO2 concentrations and under varying levels (5-100%) of solar radiation experienced by the phytoplankton at different depths of the euphotic zone. Above 22-36% of incident surface irradiance, growth rates in the high-CO2-grown cells were inversely related to light levels and exhibited reduced thresholds at which light becomes inhibitory. Future shoaling of upper-mixed-layer depths will expose phytoplankton to increased mean light intensities. In combination with rising CO2 levels, this may cause a widespread decline in marine primary production and a community shift away from diatoms, the main algal group that supports higher trophic levels and carbon export in the ocean.
Further details:
Lavigne, Héloise; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre (2011): seacarb: seawater carbonate chemistry with R. R package version 2.4. https://cran.r-project.org/package=seacarb
Coverage:
Median Latitude: 21.050000 * Median Longitude: 116.166667 * South-bound Latitude: 18.000000 * West-bound Longitude: 113.000000 * North-bound Latitude: 30.000000 * East-bound Longitude: 124.500000
Date/Time Start: 2011-05-15T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-05-23T00:00:00
Minimum Elevation: -2.0 m * Maximum Elevation: 0.0 m
Event(s):
A4_SCS * Latitude: 20.800000 * Longitude: 115.200000 * Date/Time Start: 2010-10-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-11-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * Device: In situ sampler (ISS)
C3_SCS * Latitude: 20.600000 * Longitude: 114.200000 * Date/Time Start: 2011-04-30T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2011-05-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * Device: In situ sampler (ISS)
E606_SCS * Latitude: 18.900000 * Longitude: 114.100000 * Date/Time Start: 2010-10-22T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2010-11-25T00:00:00 * Elevation Start: 0.0 m * Elevation End: -2.0 m * Location: South China Sea * Device: In situ sampler (ISS)
Comment:
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI). The date of carbonate chemistry calculation by seacarb is 2013-10-31.
Parameter(s):
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEvent
2FigureFigGao, Kunshan
3TreatmentTreatGao, Kunshan
4DATE/TIMEDate/TimeGeocode
5Time of dayTime of dayGao, Kunshan
6IrradianceEµE/m2/sGao, Kunshan
7Non photochemical quenching, standard deviationNPQ std dev±Gao, Kunshan
8DurationDurationhGao, KunshanIncubation time
9SeasonSeasonGao, Kunshan
10SpeciesSpeciesGao, Kunshan
11IrradianceEµE/m2/sGao, KunshanDaytime mean PAR
12Irradiance, standard deviationE std dev±Gao, Kunshan
13Growth rateµ1/dayGao, Kunshan
14Growth rate, standard deviationµ std dev±Gao, Kunshan
15Yield ratioYield ratioGao, KunshanHigh to low pCO2
16Non photochemical quenchingNPQGao, Kunshan
17Non photochemical quenching, standard deviationNPQ std dev±Gao, Kunshan
18Primary production of carbon, per volume of seawaterPP C sw%Gao, Kunshan
19Primary production of carbon, standard deviationPP C std dev±Gao, KunshanPer volume of sea water
20Primary production of carbon, per chlorophyll aPP C chl a%Gao, Kunshan
21Primary production of carbon, standard deviationPP C std dev±Gao, KunshanPer volume of chl a
22Temperature, waterTemp°CGao, Kunshanin situ
23pHpHGao, Kunshanin situ
24PhosphatePO4µmol/lGao, Kunshan
25IrradianceEµE/m2/sGao, KunshanSolar PAR during 14C-traced incubations
26Chlorophyll aChl aµg/lGao, KunshanSurface seawater
27Chlorophyll aChl aµg/lGao, KunshanConcentration of phytoplankton assemblages grown for 6-7 days, in the microcosms at station PN07 was not measured
28Primary production of carbonPP Cµg/l/hGao, KunshanPhytoplankton assemblages grown in the low CO2 microcosms at the end (day 7) of the growth-out in the microcosms
29Primary production of carbon, standard deviationPP C std dev±Gao, Kunshan
30Temperature, waterTemp°CGao, Kunshan
31SalinitySalGao, Kunshan
32pHpHGao, KunshanPotentiometrictotal scale
33pH, standard deviationpH std dev±Gao, KunshanPotentiometrictotal scale
34Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgGao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
35Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Gao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
36Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgGao, Kunshan
37Carbon, inorganic, dissolved, standard deviationDIC std dev±Gao, Kunshan
38Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmGao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
39Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgGao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
40Bicarbonate ion, standard deviation[HCO3]- std dev±Gao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
41Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgGao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
42Carbonate ion, standard deviation[CO3]2- std dev±Gao, KunshanCalculated using CO2SYS
43Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
44Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
45Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
46Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
47Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
48Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
49Alkalinity, total, standard deviationAT std dev±Yang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
50Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
51Calcite saturation stateOmega CalYang, YanCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
Size:
17109 data points

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