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Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A (1984): Chemical profiles in sediment and basalt at DSDP Hole 74-525A. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Liu, Y-G; Schmitt, RA (1984): Chemical profiles in sediment and basalt samples from Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 74, Hole 525A, Walvis Ridge. In: Moore, TC Jr; Rabinowitz, PD; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 74, 713-730,

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Forty sediment and four basement basalt samples from DSDP Hole 525A, Leg 74, as well as nine basalt samples from southern and offshore Brazil, were subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two major, minor, and trace elements were determined.
The downcore element concentration profiles and regression analyses show that the rare earth elements (REE) are present in significant amounts in both the carbonate and noncarbonate phases in sediments; Sr is concentrated in the carbonate phase, and most of the other elements determined exist mainly in the noncarbonate phase.
The calculated partition coefficients of the REE between the carbonate phase and the free ion concentrations in seawater are high and increase with decreasing REE ionic radii from 3.9 x 10**6 for La to 15 x 10**6 for Lu. Calculations show that the lanthanide concentrations in South Atlantic seawater have not been changed significantly over the past 70 Ma.
The Ce anomaly observed in the carbonate phase is a redox indicator of ancient seawater. Study of the Ce anomaly reveals that seawater was anoxic over the Walvis Ridge during the late Campanian. As the gap between South America and West Africa widened and the Walvis Ridge subsided from late Campanian to late Paleocene times, the water circulation of the South Atlantic improved and achieved oxidation conditions about 54 Ma that are similar to present seawater redox conditions in the world oceans.
The chemical compositions of the basement rocks correspond to alkalic basalts, not mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). The results add more evidence to support the hypothesis that the Walvis Ridge was formed by a series of volcanos moving over a "hot spot" near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
From the chemical composition and REE pattern, one 112 Ma old basalt on the Brazilian continental shelf has been identified as an early stage MORB. To date, this is the oldest oceanic tholeiite recovered from the South Atlantic. This direct evidence indicates that the continental split between South America and Africa commenced > 112 Ma.
Latitude: -29.070700 * Longitude: 2.985300
Date/Time Start: 1980-06-10T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1980-06-10T00:00:00
74-525A * Latitude: -29.070700 * Longitude: 2.985300 * Date/Time: 1980-06-10T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2467.0 m * Penetration: 678.1 m * Recovery: 406.6 m * Location: South Atlantic/CREST * Campaign: Leg74 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 62 cores; 549.7 m cored; 6 m drilled; 74 % recovery
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