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Kádár, Enikö; Fisher, Andrew; Stolpe, Björn; Harrison, Roy M; Parello, Francesco; Lead, Jamie (2013): Image analysis from TEM and AFM micrograph, Table S1, S2, S3, Figure S1, Figure S2. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.807041, Supplement to: Kádár, E et al. (2012): Metallic nanoparticle enrichment at low temperature, shallow CO2 seeps in Southern Italy. Marine Chemistry, 140, 24-32, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2012.07.001

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We report on metal enrichment along a natural pH gradient owing to increased CO2 degassing at cold, shal- low seeps of Vulcano Island in the Mediterranean Sea, off Sicily. We assessed composition of unfiltered and filtered seawater (b100 nm) along acidic zones ranging between ambient and pH 5, and showed that most seep derived elements are present as nanoclusters which then aggregate into larger colloids while mixing with ambient seawater along a pH gradient. Size and elemental composition of such naturally occurring nanoparticles assessed by modern characterisation methods were in good agreement with the results from conventional analytical methods.
We provide analytical evidence for the presence in the water column of a large fraction of seep derived ele- ments (e.g. approximately 50% of iron, over 80% of Mn, 100% of Cr, S and Zn) in the form of nano sized par- ticles (e.g. b100 nm) even at typical open ocean pHs. We launch in situ sampling protocols and sample preparation procedures for multi-method suitable to obtain accurate measurements on nanoparticles from environmental samples. Based on our results a first insight to the formation of natural nanoparticles at cold CO2 seeps is presented and the persistence of such nano-clusters in the surrounding seawater is stipulated.
Related to:
Capaccioni, B; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O (2001): Organic and inorganic geochemistry of low temperature gas discharges at the Baia di Levante beach, Vulcano Island, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 108, 173-185, doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00284-5
Kádár, Enikö; Costa, Valentina; Martins, Ines; Santos, Ricado Serrao; Powell, Jonathan J (2005): Enrichment in trace metals (Al, Mn, Co, Cu, Mo, Cd, Fe, Zn, Pb and Hg) of macro-invertebrate habitats at hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Hydrobiologia, 548(1), 191-205, doi:10.1007/s10750-005-4758-1
Yücel, Mustafa; Gartman, Amy; Chan, Clara S; Luther, Georg W (2011): Hydrothermal vents as a kinetically stable source of iron-sulphide-bearing nanoparticles to the ocean. Nature Geoscience, 4, 367-371, doi:10.1038/ngeo1148
Latitude: 38.530000 * Longitude: 14.900000
Vulcano_Island * Latitude: 38.530000 * Longitude: 14.900000 * Location: Aeolian Islands, Mediterranean Sea, off Sicily
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