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Kurihara, Kenji; Kennett, James P (1986): Neogene benthic foraminifera in the Southwest Pacific. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Kurihara, K; Kennett, JP (1986): Neogene benthic foraminifers: distribution in depth traverse, Southwesr Pacific. In: Kennett, JP; von der Borch, CC; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Washington (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 90, 1037-1077,

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Early Miocene to Quaternary benthic foraminifers have been quantitatively studied (>63 ?m size fraction) in a southwest Pacific traverse of DSDP sites at depths from about 1300 to 3200 m down the Lord Howe Rise (Site 590,1299 m; Site 591, 2131 m; Site 206, 3196 m). Benthic foraminiferal species smaller than 150 µm are by far dominant in the samples, averaging from 78 to 89% of the total benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the three sites examined. Although about 150 benthic foraminiferal species or taxonomic groups have been identified, only a few species dominate the assemblages. These dominant species include Epistominella exigua, E. rotunda, and Globocassidulina subglobosa, which prevail in the three sites, and Oridorsalis umbonatus, E. umbonifera, and Cassidulina carinata, which occur usually in frequencies of between 10 and 30%.
Faunal changes in Neogene benthic foraminiferal assemblages are not similar in each of the three sites, but faunal successions are most similar between the two shallowest sites. The deepest site differs in composition and distribution of dominant species. There are three intervals during which the most important changes occur in benthic foraminiferal assemblages: the early middle Miocene (14 Ma; the Orbulina suturalis Zone and the Globorotalia fohsi s.l. Zone); the late Miocene (6 Ma; the Globigerina nepenthes Zone) and near the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary at about 2 Ma.
A Q-mode factor analysis of the faunal data has assisted in recognizing assemblage changes during the Neogene at each of the sites. Early Miocene assemblages were dominated by Globocassidulina subglobosa at Site 590 (1299 m), by G. subglobosa and Oridorsalis umbonatus at Site 591 (2131 m), and by G. subglobosa, E. exigua, and Bolivina pusilla at Site 206 (3196 m). In the early middle Miocene at Sites 590 and 591, a marked increase occurred in the frequencies of E. exigua. Epistominella exigua reached maximum abundance in the early Miocene in the deeper Site 206, and in the middle and early late Miocene in the shallower Sites 590 and 591. In the late Miocene, a spike occurred in the frequencies of E. umbonifera in Site 206, whereas the dominant species changed from E. exigua to E. rotunda at Site 590. Latest Miocene to late Pliocene assemblages were dominated by E. rotunda at Site 590, by E. exigua at Site 591, and by G. subglobosa-E. exigua (early Pliocene) and E. rotunda-E. exigua (late Pliocene) at Site 206. At the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, E. exigua temporarily diminished in importance at Sites 591 and 206. Quaternary assemblages were dominated by E. rotunda and Cassidulina carinata at Site 590, by E. rotunda at Site 591, and by E. exigua at Site 206.
These major faunal changes are all associated with known major paleoceanographic events-the middle Miocene development of the Antarctic ice sheet; the latest Miocene global cooling and increased polar glaciation; and the onset of quasiperiodic glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. These major paleoceanographic events undoubtedly had a profound effect on the intermediate and deep water mass structure of the Tasman Sea as recorded by changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages.
Median Latitude: -31.587933 * Median Longitude: 164.419900 * South-bound Latitude: -32.012500 * West-bound Longitude: 163.358500 * North-bound Latitude: -31.167000 * East-bound Longitude: 165.452500
Date/Time Start: 1971-11-30T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1982-12-19T00:00:00
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