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Clift, Peter D; Bednarz, Ulrich; Bøe, Reidulv; Rothwell, Robin Guy; Hodkinson, Richard A; Ledbetter, Jaqueline K; Pratt, Cristelle E; Soakai, Sione (1994): (Table 1) Sedimentary thicknesses, lithologies, ages, and interpreted paleowater depths for ODP Sites 135-840 and 135-841. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Clift, PD et al. (1994): Sedimentation on the Tonga forearc related to arc rifting, subduction erosion, and ridge collision: a synthesis of results from Sites 840 and 841. In: Hawkins, J; Parson, L; Allan, J; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 135, 843-855,

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The sedimentary succession drilled at Sites 840 and 841 on the Tonga forearc allows the sedimentary evolution of the active margin to be reconstructed since shortly after the initiation of subduction during the mid Eocene. Sedimentation has been dominated by submarine fan deposits, principally volcaniclastic turbidites and mass-flows derived from the volcanic arc. Volcaniclastic sedimentation occurred against a background of pelagic nannofossil sedimentation. A number of upward-fining cycles are recognized and are correlated to regional tectonic events, such as the rifting of the Lau Basin at 5.6 Ma. Episodes of sedimentation dating from 16.0 and 10.0 Ma also correlate well with major falls in eustatic sea level and may be at least partially caused by the resulting enhanced erosion of the arc edifice. The early stages of rifting of the Lau Basin are marked by the formation of a brief hiatus at Site 840 (Horizon A), probably a result of the uplift of the Tonga Platform. Controversy exists as to the degree and timing of the uplift of Site 840 before Lau Basin rifting, with estimates ranging from 2500 to 300 m. Structural information favors a lower value. Breakup of the Tonga Arc during rifting resulted in deposition of dacite-dominated, volcaniclastic mass flows, probably reflecting a maximum in arc volcanism at this time. A pelagic interval at Site 840 suggests that no volcanic arc was present adjacent to the Tonga Platform from 5.0 to 3.0 Ma. This represents the time between separation of the Lau Ridge from the Tonga Platform and the start of activity on the Tofua Arc at 3.0 Ma. The sedimentary successions at both sites provide a record of the arc volcanism despite the reworked nature of the deposits. Probe analyses of volcanic glass grains from Site 840 indicate a consistent low-K tholeiite chemistry from 7.0 Ma to the present, possibly reflecting sediment sourcing from a single volcanic center over long periods of time. Trace and rare-earth-element (REE) analyses of basaltic glass grains indicate that thinning of the arc lithosphere had begun by 7.0 Ma and was the principle cause of a progressive depletion of the high-field-strength (HFSE), REE, and large-ion-lithophile (LILE) elements within the arc magmas before rifting. Magmatic underplating of the Tofua Arc has reversed this trend since that time. Increasing fluid flux from the subducting slab since basin rifting has caused a progressive enrichment in LILEs. Subduction erosion of the underside of the forearc lithosphere has caused continuous subsidence and tilting toward the trench since 37.0 Ma. Enhanced subsidence occurred during rifting of the South Fiji and Lau basins. Collision of the Louisville Ridge with the trench has caused no change in the nature of the sedimentation, but it may have been responsible for up to 300 m of uplift at Site 840.
Median Latitude: -22.783217 * Median Longitude: -175.523142 * South-bound Latitude: -23.345767 * West-bound Longitude: -175.748983 * North-bound Latitude: -22.220667 * East-bound Longitude: -175.297300
Date/Time Start: 1991-01-24T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1991-02-15T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 747.75 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 5419.95 m
135-840 * Latitude: -22.220667 * Longitude: -175.748983 * Date/Time Start: 1991-01-24T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1991-01-30T00:00:00 * Elevation: -755.0 m * Penetration: 861.3 m * Recovery: 255.1 m * Location: South Pacific Ocean * Campaign: Leg135 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 77 cores; 725.3 m cored; 0 m drilled; 35.2% recovery
135-841 * Latitude: -23.345767 * Longitude: -175.297300 * Date/Time Start: 1991-01-31T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1991-02-15T00:00:00 * Elevation: -4821.0 m * Penetration: 1795.8 m * Recovery: 252.8 m * Location: South Pacific Ocean * Campaign: Leg135 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 91 cores; 1685.2 m cored; 775 m drilled; 15% recovery
Sediment depth is given in mbsf. Interpreted paleowater depths according to the model of Clift (1994, doi:10.2973/ Two models have been set forth for Site 840, the first (Model A; Clift, 1993; tabled here) proposing consistent moderate depths, and the second (Model B; Ledbetter and Haggerty, 1994, doi:10.2973/ indicating greater water depths during the Miocene.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Event labelEvent
2DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
3Depth, top/minDepth topmClift, Peter D
4Depth, bottom/maxDepth botmClift, Peter D
5Age, maximum/oldAge maxkaClift, Peter D
6Age, minimum/youngAge minkaClift, Peter D
7PaleoelevationPaleoelevationm a.s.l.Clift, Peter Dmaximum
8PaleoelevationPaleoelevationm a.s.l.Clift, Peter Dminimum
9Lithology/composition/faciesLithologyClift, Peter D
10Depth, carbonate compensationCCDmClift, Peter D
11Depth, lysoclineLysoclinemClift, Peter D
187 data points

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