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Rothwell, Robin Guy; Weaver, Philip PE; Hodkinson, Richard A; Pratt, Cristelle E; Styzen, Michael J; Higgs, N C (2012): Geochemistry and lithology of clayey nannofossil ooze turbidites and hemipelagites at ODP Holes 135-834A and 135-835A. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Rothwell, RG et al. (1994): Clayey nannofossil ooze turbidites and hemipelagites at Sites 834 and 835 (Lau Basin, Southwest Pacific). In: Hawkins, J; Parson, L; Allan, J; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 135, 101-130,

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The western Lau Basin, between the Central and Eastern Lau Spreading Centers and the Lau Ridge, contains several small, elongate, fault-bounded, partially sediment-filled sub-basins. Sites 834 and 835 were drilled in the oldest part of the Lau Basin in two of these small extensional basins close to the Lau Ridge, formed on late Miocene to early Pliocene oceanic crust. Both sites show a similar sediment sequence that consists of clayey nannofossil oozes and mixed sediments interbedded with epiclastic vitric sands and silts. The vitric sands and silts are largely restricted to the deeper part of the sediment column (early Pliocene-late Pliocene), and the upper part of the sediment column at both sites consists of a distinctive sequence of brown clayey nannofossil ooze, stained by iron and manganese oxyhydroxides (late Pliocene-Holocene). However, the clayey nannofossil ooze sequence at Site 835 is anomalously thick and contains several medium- to very thick beds of matrix-supported, mud-clast conglomerate (interpreted as muddy debris-flow deposits), together with large amounts of redeposited clayey nannofossil ooze and coherent rafted blocks of older hemipelagic material.
Redeposited clayey nannofossil oozes can be distinguished from hemipelagic nannofossil oozes using several sedimentological criteria. These include variation in color hue and chroma, presence or absence of bioturbation, presence or absence of scattered foraminifers, grain-size characteristics, variability in calcium carbonate content, presence or absence of pumice clasts, and micropaleontology. Clayey nannofossil ooze turbidites and hemipelagites are also geochemically distinct, with the turbidites being commonly enriched in Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, and P.
The sediment sequence at Site 835 is dominated by allochthonous sediments, either muddy debris-flow deposits, coherent rafted blocks, or thick clayey nannofossil ooze turbidites. Since 2.9 Ma, only 25% of the 133 m of sediments deposited represents hemipelagic deposition, with an average sedimentation rate of 1.5 cm/k.y.. Allochthonous sediments were the main sediment type deposited during the Brunhes geomagnetic Epoch and make up 80% of the thickness of sediment deposited during this period. Short intervals of mainly hemipelagic deposition occurred from 0.4 to 0.9 Ma, 1.0 to 1.4 Ma, and 1.7 to 2.1 Ma. However, allochthonous sediments were again the dominant sediment type deposited between 2.1 and 2.5 Ma, with a large slide complex emplaced around 2.5 Ma. We conclude that the adjacent high ground, surrounding the basin in which Site 835 was drilled, was affected by marked instability throughout the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. In contrast, sedimentation at Site 834 during this period has been dominated by hemipelagic deposition, with redeposited sediments making up slightly less than 17% of the total thickness of sediment deposited since 2.3 Ma. However, there was a marked increase in frequency and magnitude of redeposited sediments at around 0.2 Ma at Site 834, which broadly corresponds to the onset of a major episode of turbidite and debris-flow emplacement beginning about 0.4 Ma at Site 835. This episode of instability at both sites may be the effect of the approach and passing of the Central Lau propagator at the latitude of Sites 834 and 835 at about 0.5 Ma.
Median Latitude: -18.514400 * Median Longitude: -177.414800 * South-bound Latitude: -18.568000 * West-bound Longitude: -177.862000 * North-bound Latitude: -18.501000 * East-bound Longitude: -177.303000
Date/Time Start: 1990-12-21T20:35:00 * Date/Time End: 1991-01-02T08:30:00
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