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Gérard, Martine; Person, Alain (1994): Geochemistry of volcanivlastic sediments of ODP Sites 134-832 and 134-833. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.787367, Supplement to: Gérard, M; Person, A (1994): Low hydrothermal impact in volcaniclastic sediments of the North Aoba Basin: Sites 832 and 833. In: Green, HG; Collot, J-Y; Stokking, LB; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 134, 131-176, https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.134.038.1994

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Abstract:
Volcaniclastic sediments of North Aoba Basin (Vanuatu) recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 134 show a mineralogical and chemical overprint of low grade hydrothermal alteration superimposed on the primary magmatic source compositions. The purpose of this study was to identify authigenic mineral phases incorporated in the volcaniclastic sediments, to distinguish authigenic chemical and mineralogical signals from the original volcaniclastic mineralogical and chemical compositions, and to determine the mechanism of authigenic minerals formation.
Mineralogical, micro-chemical and bulk chemical analyses were utilized to identify and characterize authigenic phases and determine the original unaltered ash compositions. 117 volcaniclastic sediment samples from North Aoba Basin Sites 832 and 833 were analyzed. Primary volcaniclastic materials accumulated in North Aoba Basin can be divided into three types. The older basin-filling sequences show three different magmatic trends: high K, calc-alkaline, and low K series. The most recent accumulations are rhyodacitic composition and can be attributed to Santa Maria or Aoba volcanic emissions.
Original depositional porosity of volcaniclastic sediments is an important factor in influencing distribution of authigenic phases. Finer-grained units are less altered and retain a bulk mineralogical and chemical composition close to the original pyroclastic rock composition. Coarser grained units (microbreccia and sandstones) are the major hosts of authigenic minerals. At both sites, authigenic minerals (including zeolites, clay minerals, Mg-carbonates, and quartz) exhibit complex zonation with depth that crosses original ash depositional boundaries and stratigraphic limits. The zeolite minerals phillipsite and analcime are ubiquitous throughout the altered intervals. At Site 832, the first zeolite minerals (phillipsite) occur in Pleistocene deposits as shallow as 146 meters below seafloor (mbsf). At Site 833 the first zeolite minerals (analcime) occur in Pleistocene deposits as shallow as 224 mbsf. The assemblage phillipsite + analcime + chabazite appears at 635 mbsf (Site 832) and at 376 mbsf (Site 833). Phillipsite + analcime + chabazite + thomsonite + heulandite are observed between 443 and 732 mbsf at Site 833. Thomsonite is no longer observed below 732 mbsf at Site 833. Heulandite is present to the base of the sections cored. The zeolite assemblages are associated with authigenic clay minerals (nontronite and saponite), calcite, and quartz. Chlorite is noticeable at Site 832 as deep as 851 mbsf. Zeolite zones are present but are less well defined at Site 832. Dolomite and rare magnesite are present below 940 m at Site 832.
The coarse-grained authigenic mineral host intervals exhibit geochemical signatures that can be attributed to low grade hydrothermal alteration. The altered intervals show evidence of K2O, CaO, and rare earth elements mobilization. When compared to fine-grained, unaltered units, and to Santa Maria Island volcanics rocks, the altered zones are relatively depleted in rare earth elements, with light rare earth elements-heavy rare earth elements fractionation.
Drilling at Site 833 penetrated a sill complex below 840 m. No sill was encountered at Site 832. Complex zonation of zeolite facies, authigenic smectites, carbonates and quartz, and associated geochemical signatures are present at both sites. The mineralogical and chemical alteration overprint is most pronounced in the deeper sections at Site 832. Based on mineralogical and chemical evidence at two locations less than 50 km apart, there is vertical and lateral variation in alteration of the volcaniclastic sediments of North Aoba Basin. The alteration observed may be activated by sill intrusion and associated expulsion of heated fluids into intervals of greater porosity. Such spatial variation in alteration could be attributed to the evolution of the basin axis associated with subduction processes along the New Hebrides Trench.
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Median Latitude: -14.831259 * Median Longitude: 167.708307 * South-bound Latitude: -14.876000 * West-bound Longitude: 167.573000 * North-bound Latitude: -14.796000 * East-bound Longitude: 167.880000
Date/Time Start: 1990-11-21T06:45:00 * Date/Time End: 1990-12-14T00:30:00
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