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Riedinger, Natascha; Formolo, Michael J; Lyons, Timothy W; Henkel, Susann; Beck, A; Kasten, Sabine (2014): Geochemistry of sediment cores GeoB13820-1 and GeoB13863-1 from the western South Atlantic. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.773188,
Supplement to: Riedinger, N et al. (2014): An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane and iron reduction in marine sediments. Geobiology, 12(2), 172-181, doi:10.1111/gbi.12077

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Here, we present results from sediments collected in the Argentine Basin, a non-steady state depositional marine system characterized by abundant oxidized iron within methane-rich layers due to sediment reworking followed by rapid deposition. Our comprehensive inorganic data set shows that iron reduction in these sulfate and sulfide-depleted sediments is best explained by a microbially mediated process-implicating anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to iron reduction (Fe-AOM) as the most likely major mechanism. Although important in many modern marine environments, iron-driven AOM may not consume similar amounts of methane compared with sulfate-dependent AOM. Nevertheless, it may have broad impact on the deep biosphere and dominate both iron and methane cycling in sulfate-lean marine settings. Fe-AOM might have been particularly relevant in the Archean ocean, >2.5 billion years ago, known for its production and accumulation of iron oxides (in iron formations) in a biosphere likely replete with methane but low in sulfate. Methane at that time was a critical greenhouse gas capable of sustaining a habitable climate under relatively low solar luminosity, and relationships to iron cycling may have impacted if not dominated methane loss from the biosphere.
Median Latitude: -39.307667 * Median Longitude: -53.958104 * South-bound Latitude: -39.311667 * West-bound Longitude: -53.967167 * North-bound Latitude: -39.301000 * East-bound Longitude: -53.952667
Date/Time Start: 2009-06-01T03:12:00 * Date/Time End: 2009-06-29T14:38:00
GeoB13820-1 (397) * Latitude: -39.301000 * Longitude: -53.967167 * Date/Time: 2009-06-01T03:12:00 * Elevation: -3613.0 m * Recovery: 9.66 m * Campaign: M78/3A * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Device: Gravity corer (GC)
GeoB13863-1 (498) * Latitude: -39.311667 * Longitude: -53.952667 * Date/Time: 2009-06-29T14:38:00 * Elevation: -3687.0 m * Recovery: 8.56 m * Campaign: M78/3B * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Device: Gravity corer (GC)
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