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Haas, Antonie; Peckmann, Jörn; Elvert, Marcus; Sahling, Heiko; Bohrmann, Gerhard (2010): Contents and stable carbon isotope compositions of biomarkers indicative for AOM-communities dominated by different ANME groups in two carbonate samples from Hydrate Hole pockmark. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Haas, A et al. (2010): Patterns of carbonate authigenesis at the Kouilou pockmarks on the Congo deep-sea fan. Marine Geology, 268(1-4), 129-136,

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Different types of seep carbonates were recovered from the 'Kouilou pockmarks' on the Congo deep-sea fan in approximately 3100 m water depth. The carbonate aggregates are represented by pyritiferous nodules, crusts and slabs, tubes, and filled molds. The latter are interpreted to represent casts of former burrows of bivalves and holothurians. The nodules consisting of high-Mg-calcite apparently formed deeper within the sediments than the predominantly aragonitic crusts and slabs. Nodule formation was caused by anaerobic oxidation of methane dominantly involving archaea of the phylogenetic ANME-1 group, whereas aragonitic crusts resulted from the activity of archaea of the ANME-2 cluster. Evidence for this correlation is based on the distribution of specific biomarkers in the two types of carbonate aggregates, showing higher hydroxyarchaeol to archaeol ratios in the crusts as opposed to nodules. Formation of crusts closer to the seafloor than nodules is indicated by higher carbonate contents of crusts, probably reflecting higher porosities of the host sediment during carbonate formation. This finding is supported by lower d18O values of crusts, agreeing with precipitation from pore waters similar in composition to seawater. The aragonitic mineralogy of the crusts is also in accord with precipitation from sulfate-rich pore waters similar to seawater. Moreover, the interpretation regarding the relative depth of formation of crusts and nodules agrees with the commonly observed pattern that ANME-1 archaea tend to occur deeper in the sediment than members of the ANME-2 group. Methane represents the predominant carbon source of all carbonates (d13C values as low as -58.9 per mil V-PDB) and the encrusted archaeal biomarkers (d13C values as low as -140 per mil V-PDB). Oxygen isotope values of some nodular carbonates, ranging from + 3.9 to + 5.1per mil V-PDB, are too high for precipitation in equilibrium with seawater, probably reflecting the destabilization of gas hydrates, which are particularly abundant at the Kouilou pockmarks.
Median Latitude: -4.809583 * Median Longitude: 9.908417 * South-bound Latitude: -4.809833 * West-bound Longitude: 9.908333 * North-bound Latitude: -4.809333 * East-bound Longitude: 9.908500
Date/Time Start: 2002-12-13T17:44:00 * Date/Time End: 2002-12-17T18:02:00
GeoB8207-1 * Latitude: -4.809833 * Longitude: 9.908500 * Date/Time: 2002-12-13T17:44:00 * Elevation: -3109.0 m * Recovery: 0.5 m * Location: Congo Fan * Campaign: M56/2 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Television-Grab (TVG) * Comment: Olive mud, carbonate, H2S odour
GeoB8212-2 * Latitude: -4.809333 * Longitude: 9.908333 * Date/Time: 2002-12-17T18:02:00 * Elevation: -3113.0 m * Recovery: 0.5 m * Location: Congo Fan * Campaign: M56/2 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Television-Grab (TVG) * Comment: Olive mud, carbonates large, Pogonophores, black layers, strong gas release, H2S odour
The abbreviation scheme used for the DAGEs is based on Elvert et al. (2005).
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