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Brüning, Markus; Sahling, Heiko; MacDonald, Ian R; Ding, Feng; Bohrmann, Gerhard (2010): (Table 2) Asphalt samples taken in the surveyed area at Chapopote Knoll, Southern Gulf of Mexico. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Brüning, M et al. (2010): Origin, distribution, and alteration of asphalts at the Chapopote Knoll, Southern Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(5), 1093-1106,

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Following the discovery of asphalt volcanism in the Campeche Knolls a research cruise was carried out in 2006 to unravel the nature of the asphalt deposits at Chapopote. The novel results support the concept that the asphalt deposits at the seafloor in 3000 m of water depth originate from the seepage of heavy petroleum with a density slightly greater than water. The released petroleum forms characteristic flow structures at the seafloor with surfaces that are 'ropy' or 'rough' similar to magmatic lava flows. The surface structures indicate that the viscosity of the heavy petroleum rapidly increases after extrusion due to loss of volatiles. Consequently, the heavy petroleum forms the observed asphalt deposit and solidifies. Detailed survey with a remotely operated vehicle revealed that the asphalts are subject to sequential alterations: e.g. volume reduction leading to the formation of visible cracks in the asphalt surface, followed by fragmentation of the entire deposit. While relatively fresh asphalt samples were gooey and sticky, older, fragmented pieces were found to be brittle without residual stickiness. Furthermore, there is evidence for petroleum seepage from below the asphalt deposits, leading to local up-doming and, sometimes, to whip-shaped extrusions. Extensive mapping by TV-guided tools of Chapopote Asphalt Volcano indicates that the main asphalt deposits occur at the south-western rim that borders a central, crater-like depression. The most recent asphalt deposit at Chapopote is the main asphalt field covering an area of ~2000 m**2. Asphalt volcanism is distinct from oil and gas seepage previously described in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere because it is characterized by episodic intrusions of semi-solid hydrocarbons that spread laterally over a substantial area and produce structures with significant vertical relief. As Chapopote occurs at the crest of a salt structure it is inferred that asphalt volcanism is a secondary result of salt tectonism.
Median Latitude: 21.898338 * Median Longitude: -93.436673 * South-bound Latitude: 21.889660 * West-bound Longitude: -93.441610 * North-bound Latitude: 21.905550 * East-bound Longitude: -93.434150
Date/Time Start: 2006-04-11T05:12:00 * Date/Time End: 2006-04-15T01:59:00
Minimum Elevation: -2935.0 m * Maximum Elevation: -2880.0 m
GeoB10617 (Dive81) * Latitude Start: 21.899030 * Longitude Start: -93.435510 * Latitude End: 21.899150 * Longitude End: -93.437300 * Date/Time: 2006-04-11T05:12:00 * Elevation Start: -2913.0 m * Elevation End: -2910.0 m * Location: Chapopote * Campaign: M67/2b * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Remote operated vehicle (ROV)
GeoB10618 * Latitude: 21.899160 * Longitude: -93.436830 * Date/Time: 2006-04-11T21:08:00 * Elevation: -2903.0 m * Location: Chapopote * Campaign: M67/2b * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Gravity corer (GC)
GeoB10619 (Dive82) * Latitude Start: 21.905550 * Longitude Start: -93.441610 * Latitude End: 21.898760 * Longitude End: -93.434150 * Date/Time: 2006-04-12T15:50:00 * Elevation Start: -2880.0 m * Elevation End: -2925.0 m * Location: Chapopote * Campaign: M67/2b * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Remote operated vehicle (ROV)
GC - gravity core, ROV - suction is a suction sampler, PC - push core. Corrected position provides sample location in Fig. 7, cf. navigation error in Methods chapter.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Event labelEvent
2Sample code/labelSample labelBrüning, Markus
3Elevation of eventElevationm
4Device typeDeviceBrüning, Markus
5Location typeLoc typeBrüning, Markus
6Latitude 2Latitude 2Brüning, Markus
7Longitude 2Longitude 2Brüning, Markus
8LatitudeLatitude+Brüning, MarkusCorrected position on Fig. 7
9LongitudeLongitude+Brüning, MarkusCorrected position on Fig. 7
10Rock typeRockBrüning, MarkusProperties
92 data points

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