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Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark; Woltering, Martijn; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Huber, Matthew; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stein, Ruediger; Matthiessen, Jens; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302 Scientists (2006): (Table S1) Palynology of IODP Hole 302-M0004A. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.769815,
Supplement to: Sluijs, A et al. (2006): Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 441, 610-613, doi:10.1038/nature04668

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The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, 55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming (Zachos et al., 2003; Kennett and Stott, 1991, doi:10.1038/353225a0; Tripati and Elderfield, 2005, doi:10.1126/science.1109202), that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input (Dickens et al., 1995, doi:10.1029/95PA02087). Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition (Backman et al., 2006, doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.302.2006). We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from 18 °C to over 23 °C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations (Shellito et al., 2003, doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00718-6), but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10 °C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms -perhaps polar stratospheric clouds (Sloan and Pollard, 1998, doi:10.1029/98GL02492) or hurricane-induced ocean mixing (Emanuel et al., 2004, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0843:ECOTCI>2.0.CO;2)- to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.
Latitude: 87.866580 * Longitude: 136.177350
Date/Time Start: 2004-08-27T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2004-08-27T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 378.21 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 390.71 m
302-M0004A (ACEX-M4A) * Latitude: 87.866580 * Longitude: 136.177350 * Date/Time: 2004-08-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1287.9 m * Penetration: 427.9 m * Recovery: 85.91 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * Campaign: Exp302 (Arctic Coring Expedition, ACEX) * Basis: Vidar Viking * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL)
Sediment depth is given in mcd.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Sample code/labelLabelSluijs, AppyODP sample designation
2DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
3Apectodinium spp.Apectodinium spp.#Sluijs, Appy
4Areoligera complexAreoligera compl#Sluijs, AppyAreoligera/Glaphyrocysta cpx
5Caligodinium acerasC. aceras#Sluijs, Appy
6Cerodinium complexCerodinium compl#Sluijs, AppyCerodinium/Deflandrea cpx
7Cordosphaeridium complexCordosphaeridium compl#Sluijs, Appy
8Senegalinium spp.Senegalinium spp.#Sluijs, Appy
9Spiniferites complexSpiniferites compl#Sluijs, Appy
10Membranosphaera complexMembranosphaera compl#Sluijs, Appy
11Polysphaeridium complexPolysphaeridium compl#Sluijs, Appy
12Dinoflagellate cyst indeterminataDinofl indet#Sluijs, Appy
13Dinoflagellate cystDinofl cyst#Sluijs, Appy
14Apectodinium spp.Apectodinium spp.%Sluijs, Appy
15Areoligera complexAreoligera compl%Sluijs, AppyAreoligera/Glaphyrocysta cpx
16Caligodinium acerasC. aceras%Sluijs, Appy
17Cerodinium complexCerodinium compl%Sluijs, AppyCerodinium/Deflandrea cpx
18Cordosphaeridium complexCordosphaeridium compl%Sluijs, Appy
19Senegalinium spp.Senegalinium spp.%Sluijs, Appy
20Spiniferites complexSpiniferites compl%Sluijs, Appy
21Membranosphaera complexMembranosphaera compl%Sluijs, Appy
22Polysphaeridium complexPolysphaeridium compl%Sluijs, Appy
23Dinoflagellate cyst indeterminataDinofl cyst indet%Sluijs, Appy
24Dinoflagellate cyst, low salinity tolerantDinofl low salinity%Sluijs, Appy
25Foraminifera, linings per unit massForam lin#/gSluijs, Appy
26AngiospermsAngiosperms#Sluijs, Appy
27SporesSpo#Sluijs, Appy
28GymnospermsGymnosperms#Sluijs, Appy
29Palynomorpha, terrestrialPalyn ter#Sluijs, Appy
30AngiospermsAngiosperms%Sluijs, Appy
31SporesSpores%Sluijs, Appy
32GymnospermsGymnosperms%Sluijs, Appy
33Palynomorpha, marinePalyn mar#Sluijs, Appy
34Palynomorpha, marinePalyn mar%Sluijs, Appy
35Palynomorpha, terrestrialPalyn ter%Sluijs, Appy
1185 data points

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