Data Description

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Sluijs, A et al. (2006): (Table S1) Palynology of IODP Hole 302-M0004A. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.769815,
Supplement to: Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark; Woltering, Martijn; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Huber, Matthew; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stein, Ruediger; Matthiessen, Jens; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302 Scientists (2006): Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 441, 610-613, doi:10.1038/nature04668
The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, 55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming (Zachos et al., 2003; Kennett and Stott, 1991, doi:10.1038/353225a0; Tripati and Elderfield, 2005, doi:10.1126/science.1109202), that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input (Dickens et al., 1995, doi:10.1029/95PA02087). Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition (Backman et al., 2006, doi:10.2204/iodp.proc.302.2006). We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from 18 °C to over 23 °C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations (Shellito et al., 2003, doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00718-6), but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10 °C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms -perhaps polar stratospheric clouds (Sloan and Pollard, 1998, doi:10.1029/98GL02492) or hurricane-induced ocean mixing (Emanuel et al., 2004, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0843:ECOTCI>2.0.CO;2)- to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.
Latitude: 87.866580 * Longitude: 136.177350
Date/Time Start: 2004-08-27T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 2004-08-27T00:00:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 378.21 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 390.71 m
302-M0004A (ACEX-M4A) * * Latitude: 87.866580 * Longitude: 136.177350 * Date/Time: 2004-08-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1287.9 m * Penetration: 427.9 m * Recovery: 85.91 m * Location: Arctic Ocean * * Campaign: Exp302 (Arctic Coring Expedition, ACEX) * * Basis: Vidar Viking * * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) *
Sediment depth is given in mcd.
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1Sample code/label *LabelSluijs, Appy *ODP sample designation *
2DEPTH, sediment/rock *DepthmGeocode
3Apectodinium spp. *Apectodinium spp.#Sluijs, Appy *
4Areoligera complex *Areoligera compl#Sluijs, Appy *Areoligera/Glaphyrocysta cpx
5Caligodinium aceras *C. aceras#Sluijs, Appy *
6Cerodinium complex *Cerodinium compl#Sluijs, Appy *Cerodinium/Deflandrea cpx
7Cordosphaeridium complex *Cordosphaeridium compl#Sluijs, Appy *
8Senegalinium spp. *Senegalinium spp.#Sluijs, Appy *
9Spiniferites complex *Spiniferites compl#Sluijs, Appy *
10Membranosphaera complex *Membranosphaera compl#Sluijs, Appy *
11Polysphaeridium complex *Polysphaeridium compl#Sluijs, Appy *
12Dinoflagellate cyst indeterminata *Dinofl indet#Sluijs, Appy *
13Dinoflagellate cyst *Dinofl cyst#Sluijs, Appy *
14Apectodinium spp. *Apectodinium spp.%Sluijs, Appy *
15Areoligera complex *Areoligera compl%Sluijs, Appy *Areoligera/Glaphyrocysta cpx
16Caligodinium aceras *C. aceras%Sluijs, Appy *
17Cerodinium complex *Cerodinium compl%Sluijs, Appy *Cerodinium/Deflandrea cpx
18Cordosphaeridium complex *Cordosphaeridium compl%Sluijs, Appy *
19Senegalinium spp. *Senegalinium spp.%Sluijs, Appy *
20Spiniferites complex *Spiniferites compl%Sluijs, Appy *
21Membranosphaera complex *Membranosphaera compl%Sluijs, Appy *
22Polysphaeridium complex *Polysphaeridium compl%Sluijs, Appy *
23Dinoflagellate cyst indeterminata *Dinofl cyst indet%Sluijs, Appy *
24Dinoflagellate cyst, low salinity tolerant *Dinofl low salinity%Sluijs, Appy *
25Foraminifera, linings per unit mass *Foram lin#/gSluijs, Appy *
26Angiosperms *Angiosperms#Sluijs, Appy *
27Spores *Spo#Sluijs, Appy *
28Gymnosperms *Gymnosperms#Sluijs, Appy *
29Palynomorpha, terrestrial *Palyn ter#Sluijs, Appy *
30Angiosperms *Angiosperms%Sluijs, Appy *
31Spores *Spores%Sluijs, Appy *
32Gymnosperms *Gymnosperms%Sluijs, Appy *
33Palynomorpha, marine *Palyn mar#Sluijs, Appy *
34Palynomorpha, marine *Palyn mar%Sluijs, Appy *
35Palynomorpha, terrestrial *Palyn ter%Sluijs, Appy *
1185 data points

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