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Heim, Dieter (1994): Tab. 2: Grain-sizes of cobble on the surface of sanderwurzel. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Heim, D (1994): Sandergenese und Gletscherentwässerung am Kötlujökull (Höfdabrekkujökull), Südisland. Polarforschung, 62(2/3), 95-128, hdl:10013/epic.29706.d001

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yResults of 13 field investigations between 1966 and 1990 of the southwestern to eastern margin of Kötlujökull and its proglacial area are summarized with respect to sandar and their formation. Generally, the results are based on sedimentological examinations in the field and laboratory, on analyses of aerial photographs, and investigations of the glacier slope. The methods permitted a more detailed reconstruction of sandar evolution in the proglacial area of Kötlujökull since 1945, of tendencies in development and of single data going back until the last decades of the 19th century. Accordingly, there existed special periods of "flachsander"-formations with raised coarsegrained "sanderwurzels" resultant from the outbreak of subglacial meltwater tunneloutlets and other periods with "hochsander-"formations by supraglacial drainage. At present the belts of hochsanders in front of the glacier come up to more than 4 m in thickness and 1000 m in width, therefore containing perhaps more sediment direct in front of Kötlujökull than the old belts of flachsanderwurzels. In one case the explosion-like subglacial meltwater outburst combined with the genesis of a sanderwurzel could be observed for a time and is thoroughly discussed. The event is referred to the outburst of a sub- to inglacial meltwater body being under extreme hydrostatic press ures which is combined with the genesis of a new subglacial tunneloutlet as a new flachsander. Often these outbursts led to the destruction of a morainic belt more than 1000 m in width. Presumably the whole event was finished in not more than a few days. In addition to a characteristic pear-shaped form and water-moved stones up to diameters of 1 m the wurzels possess a single "main-channel" with rectangular cross-sections as far as 4 m deep and 50 m wide just as small flat channels resembling fish bones in connection with the main channel. Presumably, they have been active only in the last stage of wurzel formation. With regard to the subglacial tunnel gates long-living L-meltwater outlets are distinguished from short-living K-meltwater outlets. These are always combined with a raised coarse-grained sanderwurzel, but its meltwater discharge is generally decreasing and ceases after some years, whereas the discharge of L-meltwater outlets continues unchanged for long times (except seasonal differences). The material of flachsanders is preponderantly composed of mugearitic and andesitic cobble extending at least for some kilometres from the glacier margin, whereas the hochsanders correspond to medium to coarse sands without clay and without alternations into the direction of flow. The hochsander fans are covered with small braidet channels. Their sedimentary structures are determined by the short time changing of supraglacial meltwater discharge and the upper flow regime combined with the development of antidunes, which rule the channel-flows during the main activity periods in summer. Unlike the subglacial drainage the supraglacial drainage led to only weak effects of erosion on the glacier foreland. So the hochsanders refilled depressions of morainic areas or grew up on older flachsanderwurzels. Whereas all large flachsanders developed in front of approximate stationary glacier margins, the evolution of coherent belts of hochsanders were combined with progressive glacier fronts. On the other hand, there was obviously no evolution at all of large sandar in front of back-melting margins of Kötlujökull. Based on examinations of the glacier surface and on analyses of aerial photographs the different types of sandar are referred to different structures of the glacier snout. Finally chances of surviving of sandar in the proglacial area of Kötlujökull are shortly discussed just as the possibility of an application of the Islandic research results on Pleistocene sandar in northern Germany.
Latitude: 63.670000 * Longitude: -19.100000
Kötlujökull * Latitude: 63.670000 * Longitude: -19.100000 * Location: Myrdalsjökull, southern Iceland * Method/Device: Observation (OBSE)
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
2DistanceDistancemHeim, Dieterfrom No. 1
3WidthwmHeim, Dieter
4NumberNoHeim, Dieterof blocks
5Size fraction 200-63 mm20-6.3 cm%Heim, Dieter
6Size fraction 630-200 mm63-20 cm%Heim, Dieter
7Size fraction 1120-630 mm112-63 cm%Heim, Dieter
8Mean, statisticalMeanHeim, Dieter2x
9Standard deviationStd dev±Heim, Dieter2 sigma
10ReplicatesRepl#Heim, Dieter
11ReplicatesRepl#Heim, Dieter
12ReplicatesRepl#Heim, Dieter
13Mean, statisticalMeanHeim, Dieteroverall, 2x
14Standard deviationStd dev±Heim, Dieteroverall, 2 sigma
189 data points

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