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Fleet, A J; McKelvey, Barrie C (1978): Major and trace element analyses from DSDP Hole 26-253 at the Ninetyeast Ridge in the Indian Ocean. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Fleet, AJ; McKelvey, BC (1978): Eocene explosive submarine volcanism, Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean. Marine Geology, 26(1-2), 73-97,

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A basaltic sequence of Eocene submarine-erupted pyroclastic sediments totals at least 388 m at DSDP Site 253 on the Ninetyeast Ridge. These fossiliferous hyaloclastic sediments have been erupted and fragmented by explosive volcanism (hydroexplosions) in shallow water. The occurrence of interbedded basaltic ash-fall tuffs within the younger horizons of the hyaloclastic sequence marks the emergence of some Ninetyeast Ridge volcanic vents above sea level. Considerable textural variation allows subdivision of the sequence into six informal lithostratigraphic units. Hydrothermal and diagenetic alteration has caused the complete replacement of all original glass by smectites, and the introduction of abundant zeolite and calcite cements.
The major and trace element contents of the hyaloclastites vary due to the alteration, and the admixture of biogenous calcite. On a calcium carbonate-free basis systematic variations are recognisable. Mg, Ni, Cr and Cu are enriched, and Li and Zn depleted in the three older units relative to the younger three. The chemical variability is reflected by the development of saponite in the older part of the sequence and montmorillonite in the younger; and by the presence of a quartz-normative basalt flow occurring in Unit II, in contrast to the Mg-rich highly olivine-normative basalt at the base of the sequence. The younger and older parts of the sequence therefore appear to have been derived from magmas of different chemistry.
The sequence, like other basaltic rocks recovered from the Ninetyeast Ridge, is enriched in the light relative to the heavy rare earth elements (REE) although the REE contents vary unsystematically with depth, probably because of the high-temperature subaqueous alteration and the presence of biogenous calcite. This REE data indicates that the Ninetyeast Ridge volcanism was different from that which produces mid-ocean ridge basalts.
Latitude: -24.877500 * Longitude: 87.366200
Date/Time Start: 1972-10-01T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1972-10-01T00:00:00
26-253 * Latitude: -24.877500 * Longitude: 87.366200 * Date/Time: 1972-10-01T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1962.0 m * Penetration: 559 m * Recovery: 269.5 m * Location: Indian Ocean//RIDGE * Campaign: Leg26 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 52 cores; 479.5 m cored; 57 m drilled; 56.2 % recovery
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