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Saunders, Andrew D; Storey, Michael; Gibson, Ian L; Leat, Philip; Hergt, Janet M; Thompson, Robert N (1991): Chemical composition of Ninetyeast Ridge basalts. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Saunders, AD et al. (1991): Chemical and isotopic constraints of the origin of basalts from Ninetyeast Ridge, Indian Ocean: Results from DSDP Leg 22 and 26 and ODP Leg 121. In: Weissel, J; Peirce, J; Taylor, E; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 121, 559-590,

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On Leg 121 of the Ocean Drilling Program, we recovered basaltic rocks from a total of three basement sites in the southern, central, and northern regions of Ninetyeast Ridge. These new sites complement the previous four basement holes drilled during Legs 22 and 26 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, and confirm the predominantly tholeiitic, light rare earth element-enriched character of the basalts that cap the ridge. The basalts show marked iron enrichment; ferrobasalts occur at Sites 214 and 216 and oceanic andesites at Site 253. All of the basalts recovered during Leg 121 are altered, and range from aphyric olivine tholeiites (Site 756), to strongly plagioclase-phyric basalts (Site 757). Basalts from Site 758, which were clearly erupted in a submarine environment (pillow basalts are present in the section), are sparsely to strongly plagioclase-phyric. The basalts recovered at any one hole are isotopically homogeneous (except for the basalts from Site 758, which show a range of Pb isotopes), and it is possible to relate the magmas at any one site by high-level fractionation processes. However, there are significant variations in isotope ratios and highly incompatible element ratios between sites, which suggest that the mantle source for the ridge basalts was compositionally variable. Such variation, in view of the large volume of magmatic products that form the ridge system, is not surprising. There is not, however, a systematic variation in basalt composition along the ridge.
We agree with previous models that relate Ninetyeast Ridge to a mantle plume in the southern Indian Ocean. The tholeiitic, iron-enriched, and voluminous character of the ridge basalts is typical of oceanic islands associated with plumes on or near a mid-ocean ridge (e.g., Iceland, Galapagos Islands, and St. Paul/Amsterdam islands). The absence of recovered alkalic suites is inconsistent with an intraplate setting, such as the Hawaiian Islands or Kerguelen Island. Thus, the major element data, like the gravity data, strongly suggest that the ridge was erupted on or very close to an active spreading center. Isotopically, the most likely plume that created the excess magmatism on the Ridge is the Kerguelen-Heard plume system, but the Ninetyeast Ridge basalts do not represent a simple mixing of the Kerguelen plume and mid-ocean Ninetyeast Ridge basalt mantle.
Median Latitude: -12.655617 * Median Longitude: 88.704141 * South-bound Latitude: -27.355000 * West-bound Longitude: 87.366200 * North-bound Latitude: 5.384200 * East-bound Longitude: 90.361200
Date/Time Start: 1972-02-08T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-06-24T13:30:00
121-756C * Latitude: -27.354000 * Longitude: 87.598200 * Date/Time Start: 1988-05-26T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-27T18:45:00 * Elevation: -1527.0 m * Penetration: 159 m * Recovery: 61.81 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 11 core; 76.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 80.7 % recovery
121-756D * Latitude: -27.355000 * Longitude: 87.597400 * Date/Time Start: 1988-05-27T18:45:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-29T10:30:00 * Elevation: -1524.0 m * Penetration: 221 m * Recovery: 46.04 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 11 core; 101.2 m cored; 0 m drilled; 45.5 % recovery
121-757B * Latitude: -17.024000 * Longitude: 88.181600 * Date/Time Start: 1988-06-01T11:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-06-04T06:15:00 * Elevation: -1663.0 m * Penetration: 374.8 m * Recovery: 271.94 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 43 cores; 374.8 m cored; 0 m drilled; 72.6 % recovery
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