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Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, Frank; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, Guy; Pörtner, Hans-Otto (2010): Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes of Sepia officinalis during experiments, 2010. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Gutowska, MA et al. (2010): Acid–base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmentalphysiology, 180(3), 323-335,

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Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO2 levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO2. It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO2 could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as 31P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO2, S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO3] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pHi regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O2 saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species.
Acid-base regulation; Animalia; Behaviour; Coast and continental shelf; Containers and aquaria (20-1000 L or < 1 m**2); Laboratory experiment; Mollusca; Nekton; North Atlantic; Pelagos; Sepia officinalis; Single species; Temperate
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), grant/award no. 211384: European Project on Ocean Acidification
Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), grant/award no. 511106: European network of excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis
In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethod/DeviceComment
1Experimental treatmentExp treatGutowska, Magdalena A
2Incubation durationInc durhGutowska, Magdalena A
3SalinitySalGutowska, Magdalena A
4Temperature, waterTemp°CGutowska, Magdalena A
5pHpHGutowska, Magdalena AOptical sensor (HPS-OIW)NBS scale, H+ ion concentration in µmol/l
6Bicarbonate[HCO3]-mmol/lGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated using CO2SYS
7Carbon dioxide, partial pressurepCO2PaGutowska, Magdalena AMeasured
8Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated
9Alkalinity, totalATµmol/kgGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated using CO2SYS
10Carbon, inorganic, dissolvedDICµmol/kgGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated using CO2SYS
11pHpHGutowska, Magdalena ACalculatedNBS scale, H+ ion concentration in µmol/kg
12Carbonate system computation flagCSC flagNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
13pHpHNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)Total scale, H+ ion concentration in µmol/kg
14Carbon dioxideCO2µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
15Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)pCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
16Fugacity of carbon dioxide (water) at sea surface temperature (wet air)fCO2water_SST_wetµatmNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
17Bicarbonate ion[HCO3]-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
18Carbonate ion[CO3]2-µmol/kgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
19Aragonite saturation stateOmega ArgNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
20Calcite saturation stateOmega CalNisumaa, Anne-MarinCalculated using seacarb after Nisumaa et al. (2010)
21Sepia officinalis, pH, intracellularS. officinalis pH inGutowska, Magdalena AOptical sensor (HPS-OIW)
22Sepia officinalis, pH, intracellular, standard deviationS. officinalis pH in std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
23Sepia officinalis, phosphate, inorganic vs phospho-L-arginine ratioS. officinalis Pi/PLAGutowska, Magdalena AMeasured
24Sepia officinalis, phosphate, inorganic vs phospho-L-arginine ratio, standard deS. officinalis Pi/PLA std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
25Sepia officinalis, ventilation frequency, changesS. officinalis ventilationbpmGutowska, Magdalena AMeasured
26Sepia officinalis, ventilation frequency, changes, standard deviationS. officinalis ventilation std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
27Sepia officinalis, haemolymph pHS. officinalis pH (ha)Gutowska, Magdalena AOptical sensor (HPS-OIW)
28Sepia officinalis, haemolymph pH, standard deviationS. officinalis pH (ha) std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
29Sepia officinalis, haemolymph, bicarbonate ionS. officinalis [HCO3]- (ha)mmol/lGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated
30Sepia officinalis, haemolymph, bicarbonate, standard deviationS. officinalis [HCO3]- (ha) std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
31Sepia officinalis, haemolymph pCO2S. officinalis pCO2 (ha)kPaGutowska, Magdalena ACalculated
32Sepia officinalis, haemolymph pCO2, standard deviationS. officinalis pCO2 (ha) std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
33Sepia officinalis, haemolymph O2S. officinalis O2 (ha)kPaGutowska, Magdalena AOptical sensor (PS1, PreSens)
34Sepia officinalis, haemolymph O2, standard deviationS. officinalis O2 (ha) std dev±Gutowska, Magdalena A
1725 data points

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