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Krissek, Lawrence A; Clemens, Steven C (1991): Mineralogy of ODP Hole 117-722B (Appendix). PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Krissek, LA; Clemens, SC (1991): Mineralogic variations in a Pleistocene high-resolution eolian record from the Owen Ridge, western Arabian Sea (Site 722): implications for sediment source conditions and monsoon history. In: Prell, WL; Niitsuma, N; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 117, 197-213,

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Bulk mineralogy of the terrigenous fraction of 99 samples from ODP Site 722 on the Owen Ridge, western Arabian Sea, has been determined by x-ray diffraction, using an internal standard method. The sampling interval, approximately 4.3 k.y., provides a detailed mineralogic record for the past 500 k.y. Previous studies have identified important modern continental sediment sources and the mineral assemblages presently derived from each. These studies have also demonstrated that most of this material is supplied by southwest and northwest winds during the summer monsoon. A variety of marine and terrestrial records and general circulation model (GCM) simulations have indicated the importance of monsoonal circulation during the Pleistocene and Holocene and have demonstrated increased aridity during glacial times and increased humidity during inter glacials. The mineralogic data generated here were used to investigate variations in source area weathering conditions during these environmental changes.
Terrigenous minerals present include smectite, illite, palygorskite, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz, plagioclase feldspar, and dolomite. This mineralogy is consistent with the compositions of source areas presently supplying sediment to the Arabian Sea. An R-mode factor analysis has identified four mineral assemblages present throughout the past 500 k.y.: quartz/chlorite/dolomite (Factor 1), kaolinite/plagioclase/illite (Factor 2), smectite (Factor 3), and palygorskite/dolomite (Factor 4). Chlorite, illite, and palygorskite are extremely susceptible to chemical weathering, and a spectral comparison of these factors with the eolian mass accumulation rate (MAR) record from Hole 722B (an index of dust source area aridity) indicates that Factors 1, 2, and 4 are directly related to changes in aridity. Because of these characteristics, Factors 1,2, and 4 are interpreted to originate from arid source regions. Factor 3 is interpreted to record more humid source conditions.
Time-series of scores for the four factors are dominated by short-term (10-100 k.y.) variability, and do not correlate well to glacial/interglacial fluctuations in the time domain. These characteristics suggest that local climatic shifts were complex, and that equilibrium weathering assemblages did not develop immediately after climatic change. Spectral analysis of factor scores identifies peaks at or near the primary Milankovitch frequencies for all factors. Factor 1 (quartz/chlorite/dolomite), Factor 2 (kaolinite/plagioclase/illite), and Factor 4 (illite/palygorskite) are coherent and in phase with the MAR record over the 23, 41, and 100 k.y. bands, respectively. The reasons for coherency at single Milankovitch frequencies are not known, but may include differences in the susceptibilities of minerals to varying time scales of weathering and/or preferential development of suitable continental source environments by climatic changes at the various Milankovitch frequencies.
Latitude: 16.621800 * Longitude: 59.795300
Date/Time Start: 1987-09-08T12:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-09-13T10:15:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.04 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 20.34 m
117-722B * Latitude: 16.621800 * Longitude: 59.795300 * Date/Time Start: 1987-09-08T12:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1987-09-13T10:15:00 * Elevation: -2033.0 m * Penetration: 565.6 m * Recovery: 385.8 m * Location: Arabian Sea * Campaign: Leg117 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 59 cores; 565.1 m cored; 0 m drilled; 68.3 % recovery
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
2AGEAgeka BPGeocode
3Smectite (peak area)Sme peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
4Palygorskite (peak area)Plg peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
5Illite (peak area)Ill peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
6Quartz (peak area)Qz peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
7Plagioclase (peak area)Pl peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
8Kaolinite (peak area)Kln peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
9Chlorite (peak area)Chl peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
10Calcite (peak area)Cal peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
11Dolomite (peak area)Dol peak areaKrissek, Lawrence A
12Factor 1PC1Krissek, Lawrence A
13Factor 2PC2Krissek, Lawrence A
14Factor 3PC3Krissek, Lawrence A
15Factor 4PC4Krissek, Lawrence A
1287 data points

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