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Zabel, Matthias; Schulz, Horst D (2001): Ikaite of sediment cores from the Zaire deep-sea fan. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Zabel, M; Schulz, HD (2001): Importance of submarine landslides for non-steady state conditions in pore water systems - lower Zaire (Congo) deep-sea fan. Marine Geology, 176(1-4), 87-99,

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Most concentration profiles of sulfate in continental margin sediments show constant or continuously increasing gradients from the benthic boundary layer down to the deep sulfate reduction zone. However, a very marked change in this gradient has been observed several meters below the surface at many locations, which has been attributed to anoxic sulfide oxidation or to non-local transport mechanisms of pore waters. The subject of this study is to investigate whether this feature could be better explained by non-steady state conditions in the pore-water system. To this end, data are presented from two gravity cores recovered from the Zaire deep-sea fan. The sediments at this location can be subdivided into two sections. The upper layer, about 10 m thick, consists of stratified pelagic deposits representing a period of continuous sedimentation over the last 190 kyr. It is underlain by a turbidite sequence measuring several meters in thickness, which contains large crystals of authigenic calcium carbonate (ikaite: CaCO3·6H2O). Ikaite delta13C values are indicative of a methane carbon contribution to the CO2 pool. Radiocarbon ages of these minerals, as well as of the adjacent bulk sediments, provide strong evidence that the pelagic sediments have overthrust the lower section as a coherent block. Therefore, the emplacement of a relatively undisturbed sediment package is postulated. Pore-water profiles show the depth of the sulfate–methane transition zone within the turbiditic sediments. By the adaptation of a simple transport-reaction model, it is shown that the change in the geochemical environmental conditions, resulting from this slide emplacement, and the development towards a new steady state are fully sufficient to explain all features related to the pore-water profiles, particularly, [SO4]2- and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The model shows that the downslope transport took place about 300 yr ago.
Median Latitude: -6.930944 * Median Longitude: 9.001889 * South-bound Latitude: -6.933333 * West-bound Longitude: 9.000000 * North-bound Latitude: -6.926167 * East-bound Longitude: 9.005667
Date/Time Start: 1991-03-29T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1998-03-07T13:33:00
GeoB1401-4 * Latitude: -6.926167 * Longitude: 9.005667 * Date/Time: 1991-03-29T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3952.0 m * Recovery: 15.75 m * Location: Congo Fan * Campaign: M16/1 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Gravity corer (Kiel type) (SL)
GeoB4914-3 * Latitude: -6.933333 * Longitude: 9.000000 * Date/Time: 1998-03-07T13:33:00 * Elevation: -3977.0 m * Recovery: 21.75 m * Location: southern Congo fan * Campaign: M41/1 * Basis: Meteor (1986) * Method/Device: Gravity corer (Kiel type) (SL) * Comment: Geochemistry, ikaites, CC: olive hemipelagic mud, plant debris, mica
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