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Sikes, Elisabeth L; Keigwin, Lloyd D; Curry, William B (1991): Stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of Cibicidoides from DSDP/ODP holes. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Sikes, EL et al. (1991): Pliocene paleoceanography: circulation and oceanographic changes associated with the 2.4 Ma glacial event. Paleoceanography, 6(2), 245-257,

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High-resolution delta18O records from the equatorial Pacific (site 503B), equatorial Atlantic (site 665A), and North Atlantic (site 606A) based on the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi show the 2.4 Ma onset of major northern hemispheric glaciation to be a package of three events occurring at 2.39, 2.35, and 2.31 Ma in which a periodicity of about 40 kyr is evident. The amplitude of the signals at the three sites indicates that these events were 1/2 to 2/3 the size of the latest Quaternary glaciation and also indicates cooling of northern source bottom water by 2.7°-4.1°C relative to southern source water during glaciations. Carbon isotopes indicate that southern source waters were less oxygenated than in the Quaternary and that there was reduced production of northern source water during glacial intervals. The dominant presence of southern source water in the eastern basin of the equatorial Atlantic, regardless of climatic cycles, throughout the late Pliocene indicates a greater influence of these waters relative to northern source waters in the late Pliocene ocean.
Median Latitude: 14.779900 * Median Longitude: -50.268933 * South-bound Latitude: 2.951200 * West-bound Longitude: -95.638700 * North-bound Latitude: 37.338200 * East-bound Longitude: -19.667800
Date/Time Start: 1979-09-06T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1986-04-04T19:00:00
108-665A * Latitude: 2.951200 * Longitude: -19.667800 * Date/Time Start: 1986-04-03T21:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1986-04-04T19:00:00 * Elevation: -4746.0 m * Penetration: 97.9 m * Recovery: 99.97 m * Location: North Atlantic Ocean * Campaign: Leg108 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 11 core; 97.9 m cored; 0 m drilled; 102.1 % recovery
68-503B * Latitude: 4.050300 * Longitude: -95.638700 * Date/Time: 1979-09-06T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3672.0 m * Penetration: 112.8 m * Recovery: 94.3 m * Location: North Pacific/FLANK * Campaign: Leg68 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 26 cores; 112.8 m cored; 0 m drilled; 83.6 % recovery
94-606A * Latitude: 37.338200 * Longitude: -35.500300 * Date/Time: 1983-07-02T00:00:00 * Elevation: -3007.0 m * Penetration: 178.4 m * Recovery: 156.3 m * Location: North Atlantic/FLANK * Campaign: Leg94 * Basis: Glomar Challenger * Method/Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 19 cores; 178.4 m cored; 0 m drilled; 87.6 % recovery
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