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Rostek, Frauke; Bard, Edouard; Beaufort, Luc; Sonzogni, Corinne; Ganssen, Gerald M (1997): Alkenones and sea surface reconstruction of sediments from, the Arabian Sea. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Rostek, F et al. (1997): Sea surface temperature and productivity records for the past 240 kyr in the Arabian Sea. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44(6-7), 1461-1480,

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Deep-sea sediments of two cores from the western (TY93-929/P) and the southeastern (MD900963) Arabian Sea were used to study the variations of the Indian monsoon during previous climatic cycles. Core TY93-929/P was located between the SW monsoon driven upwelling centres off Somalia and Oman, which are characterized by large seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) and particle flux changes. By contrast, core MD900963, was situated near the Maldives platform, an equatorial ocean site with a rather small SST seasonality (less than 2°C). For both cores we have reconstructed SST variations by means of the unsaturation ratio of C37 alkenones, which is compared with the delta18O records established on planktonic foraminifera. In general, the SST records follow the delta18O variations, with an SST maximum during oxygen isotope stage 5.5 (the Last Interglacial at about 120-130 kyr) and a broad SST minimum during isotope stage 4 and 3.3 (approximately 40-50 kyr). The SST difference between the Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is of the order of 2°C. In both cores the SSTs during isotope stage 6 are distinctly higher by 1-2°C than the cold SST minima during the last glacial cycle (LGM and stage 3).
To reconstruct qualitatively the past productivity variations for the two cores, we used the concentrations and fluxes of alkenones and organic carbon, together with a productivity index based on coccolith species (Florisphaera profunda relative abundance). Within each core, there is a general agreement between the different palaeoproductivity proxies. In the southeastern Arabian Sea (core MD900963), glacial stages correspond to relatively high productivity, whereas warm interstadials coincide with low productivity. All time series of productivity proxies are dominated by a cyclicity of about 21-23 kyr, which corresponds to the insolation precessional cycle. A hypothesis could be that the NE monsoon winds were stronger during the glacial stages, which induced deepening of the surface mixed layer and injection of nutrients to the euphotic zone. By contrast, the records are more complicated in the upwelling region of the western Arabian Sea (core TY93-929/P). This is partly due to large changes in the sedimentation rates, which were higher during specific periods (isotope stages 6, 5.4, 5.2, 3 and 2). Unlike core MD900963, no simple relationship emerges from the comparison between the delta18O stratigraphy and productivity records. The greater complexity observed for core TY93-929/P could be the result of the superimposition of different patterns of productivity fluctuations for the two monsoon seasons, the SW monsoon being enhanced during interglacial periods, whereas the NE monsoon was increased during glacial intervals. A similar line of reasoning also could help explain the SST records by the superimposition of variations of three components: global atmospheric temperature, and SW and NE monsoon dynamics.
Latitude: 5.040000 * Longitude: 73.530000
Date/Time Start: 1990-09-12T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1990-09-12T00:00:00
MD90-963 (GS900963) * Latitude: 5.040000 * Longitude: 73.530000 * Date/Time: 1990-09-12T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2446.0 m * Recovery: 53.6 m * Campaign: MD65 (SEYMAMA/SHIVA) * Basis: Marion Dufresne (1972) * Method/Device: Piston corer (PC)
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