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Heuer, Verena B; Pohlman, John W; Torres, Marta E; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe (2009): Concentrations and carbon isotopic compositions of organic and inorganic compounds in sediment porewaters at IODP Site U1329. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Heuer, VB et al. (2009): The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and other dissolved carbon species in deep subseafloor sediments at the northern Cascadia Margin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 3323-3336,

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Ocean drilling has revealed the existence of vast microbial populations in the deep subseafloor, but to date little is known about their metabolic activities. To better understand the biogeochemical processes in the deep biosphere, we investigate the stable carbon isotope chemistry of acetate and other carbon-bearing metabolites in sediment pore-waters. Acetate is a key metabolite in the cycling of carbon in anoxic sediments. Its stable carbon isotopic composition provides information on the metabolic processes dominating acetate turnover in situ. This study reports our findings for a methane-rich site at the northern Cascadia Margin (NE Pacific) where Expedition 311 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampled the upper 190 m of sediment. At Site U1329, d13C values of acetate span a wide range from -46.0 per mill to -11.0 per mill vs. VPDB and change systematically with sediment depth. In contrast, d13C values of both the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-21.6 ± 1.3 per mill vs. VPDB) and the low-molecular-weight compound lactate (-20.9 ± 1.8 per mill vs. VPDB) show little variability. These species are interpreted to represent the carbon isotopic composition of fermentation products. Relative to DOC, acetate is up to 23.1 per mill depleted and up to 9.1 per mill enriched in 13C. Broadly, 13C-depletions of acetate relative to DOC indicate flux of carbon from acetogenesis into the acetate pool while 13C-enrichments of pore-water acetate relative to DOC suggest consumption of acetate by acetoclastic methanogenesis. Isotopic relationships between acetate and lactate or DOC provide new information on the carbon flow and the presence and activity of specific functional microbial communities in distinct biogeochemical horizons of the sediment. In particular, they suggest that acetogenic CO2-reduction can coexist with methanogenic CO2-reduction, a notion contrary to the hypothesis that hydrogen levels are controlled by the thermodynamically most favorable electron-accepting process. Further, the isotopic relationship suggests a relative increase in acetate flow to acetoclastic methanogenesis with depth although its contribution to total methanogenesis is probably small. Our study demonstrates how the stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate can be used to identify pathways of microbial carbon turnover in subsurface environments. Our observations also raise new questions regarding the factors controlling acetate turnover in marine sediments.
Latitude: 48.789000 * Longitude: -126.678000
311-U1329 * Latitude: 48.789000 * Longitude: -126.678000 * Elevation: -946.0 m * Location: off Vancouver Island * Campaign: Exp311 (Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates) * Basis: Joides Resolution * Method/Device: Composite Core (COMPCORE) * Comment: 35 cores; 254.5 m cored; 502 m drilled
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