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Wefer, Gerold (1985): Stable isotope ratios in shells of marine organisms. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Wefer, G (1985): Die Verteilung stabiler Isotope in Kalkschalen mariner Organismen. Geologisches Jahrbuch, A82, 114 pp, hdl:10013/epic.33623.d001

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Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses have been carried out on calcareous skeletons of important recent groups of organisms. Annual temperature ranges and distinct developmental stages can be reconstructed from single shells with the aid of the micro-sampling technique made possible by modern mass-spectrometers. This is in contrast to the results of earlier studies which used bulk sampIes. The skeletons analysed are from Bermuda, the Philippines, the Persian Gulf and the continental margin off Peru. In these environments, seasonal salinity ranges and thus annual variations in the isotopic composition of the water are small. In addition, environmental parameters are weIl documented in these areas.
The recognition of seasonal isotopic variations is dependant on the type of calcification. Shells built up by carbonate deposition at the margin, such as molluscs, are suitable for isotopic studies. Analysis is more difficult where chambers are added at the margin of the shell but where older chambers are simultaneously covered by a thin veneer of carbonate e. g. in rotaliid foraminifera. Organisms such as calcareous algae or echinoderms that thicken existing calcareous parts as weIl as growing in length and breadth are the most difficult to analyse.
All organisms analysed show temperature related oxygen-isotope fractionation. The most recent groups fractionate oxygen isotopes in accordance with established d18O temperature relationships (Tab. 18, Fig. 42). These groups are deep-sea foraminifera, planktonic foraminifera, serpulids, brachiopods, bryozoa, almost all molluscs, sea urchins, and fish (otoliths). A second group of organisms including the calcareous algae Padina, Acetabularia, and Penicillus, as weIl as barnacles, cause enrichment of the heavy isotope 18O. Finally, the calcareous algae Amphiroa, Cymopolia and Halimeda, the larger foraminifera, corals, starfish, and holothurians cause enrichment of the lighter isotope 16O. Organisms causing non-equilibrium fractionation also record seasonal temperature variations within their skeletons which are reflected in stable-oxygen-isotope patterns.
With the exception of the green algae Halimeda and Penicillus, all organisms analysed show lower d13C values than calculated equilibrium values (Tab. 18, Fig. 42). Especially enriched with the lighter isotope 12C are animals such as hermatypic corals and larger foraminifera which exist in symbiosis with other organisms, but also ahermatypic corals, starfish, and holothurians. With increasing age of the organisms, seven different d13C trends were observed within the skeletons.
1) No d13C variations are observed in deep-sea foraminifera presumably due to relatively stable environmental conditions.
2) Lower d13C values occur in miliolid larger foraminifera and are possibly related to increased growth with increasing age of the foraminifera.
3) Higher values are found in planktonic foraminifera and rotaliid larger foraminifera and can be explained by a slowing down of growth with increasing age.
4) A sudden change to lower d13C values at a distinct shell size occurs in molluscs and is possibly caused by the first reproductive event.
5) A low-high-Iow cycle in calcareous algae is possibly caused by variations in the stage of calcification or growth.
6) A positive correlation between d18O and d13C values is found in some hermatypic corals, all ahermatypic corals, in the septa of Nautilus and in the otoliths of fish. In hermatypic corals from tropical areas, this correlation is the result of the inverse relationship between temperature and light caused by summer cloud cover; in other groups it is inferred to be due to metabolic processes.
7) A negative correlation between d18O and d13C values found in hermatypic corals from the subtropics is explained by the sympathetic relationship between temperature and light in these latitudes. These trends show that the carbon isotope fractionation is controlled by the biology of the respective carbonate producing organisms. Thus, the carbon isotope distribution can provide information on the symbiont-host relationship, on metabolic processes and calcification and growth stages during ontogenesis of calcareous marine organisms.
Wechselwirkung Meer-Meeresboden (Interaction Sea-Sea Bottom) (SFB95)
Median Latitude: 25.449229 * Median Longitude: -109.295021 * South-bound Latitude: -77.566660 * West-bound Longitude: 52.500000 * North-bound Latitude: 32.475000 * East-bound Longitude: -64.716667
Date/Time Start: 1965-04-04T00:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1980-04-10T00:00:00
Wefer1 * Latitude: 32.333333 * Longitude: -64.725000 * Date/Time: 1978-09-27T00:00:00 * Elevation: -1.5 m * Location: Harrington Sound Bermuda * Campaign: Bermuda78 * Basis: Bermuda Bio Station * Device: Sampling by diver (DIVER) * Comment: Substratum: Rocks, alive
Wefer10 * Latitude: 32.333333 * Longitude: -64.725000 * Date/Time: 1978-09-13T00:00:00 * Elevation: -10.0 m * Location: Harrington Sound Bermuda * Campaign: Bermuda78 * Basis: Bermuda Bio Station * Device: Sampling by diver (DIVER) * Comment: Substratum: Sand, alive
Wefer11 * Latitude: 32.333333 * Longitude: -64.725000 * Date/Time: 1979-11-21T00:00:00 * Elevation: -2.5 m * Location: Harrington Sound Bermuda * Campaign: Bermuda79 * Basis: Bermuda Bio Station * Device: Sampling by diver (DIVER) * Comment: Substratum: Sand, alive
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