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Müller, Juliane; Massé, Guillaume; Stein, Ruediger; Belt, Simon T (2009): Figure 2: IP25 measurements and accumulation rates of sediment core PS2837-5. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Müller, J et al. (2009): Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years. Nature Geoscience, 2, 772-227,

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Sea ice is a critical component of the climate system: variations in sea-ice cover affect the albedo of polar regions, and also the rate of deepwater formation. Changes in the sea-ice cover of the North Atlantic Ocean are thought to have been related to abrupt climate changes throughout the last glacial termination, but reconstructions of sea-ice conditions are rare. Here we use the sedimentary abundance of the IP25 and brassicasterol biomarkers, produced by sea-ice-associated diatoms and open-water phytoplankton, respectively, to generate a record of sea-ice conditions in the northernmost Atlantic Ocean for the past 30,000 years. Our reconstruction shows that a stationary margin between sea-ice cover and the open ocean existed during the Last Glacial, although perennial sea-ice cover prevailed for most of the Last Glacial Maximum. An early warming about 14,000 years ago was associated with ice-free conditions; however, seasonal sea ice was present throughout the Holocene. We find temporal links between our record of sea ice and reconstructions of the amount of relatively warm Atlantic water advected into the Nordic Seas. We therefore conclude that changes in sea-ice conditions are linked to regional and global climate anomalies and oceanographic circulation in the North Atlantic.
Latitude: 81.233333 * Longitude: 2.381667
Date/Time Start: 1997-07-12T11:22:00 * Date/Time End: 1997-07-12T11:22:00
Minimum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 0.32 m * Maximum DEPTH, sediment/rock: 4.53 m
PS2837-5 (PS44/065) * Latitude: 81.233333 * Longitude: 2.381667 * Date/Time: 1997-07-12T11:22:00 * Elevation: -1023.0 m * Recovery: 8.72 m * Location: Yermak Plateau * Campaign: ARK-XIII/2 (PS44) * Basis: Polarstern * Device: Kasten corer (KAL)
For further details on the age model of the core and specific organic geochemical data (brassicasterol and total organic carbon content) we refer to the data set entry by Birgel and Hass, 2004, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.728974. See doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.56094 for the GISP2 oxygen isotope data (Grootes et al, 1993).
#NameShort NameUnitPrincipal InvestigatorMethodComment
1DEPTH, sediment/rockDepthmGeocode
2AGEAgeka BPGeocode
32,6,10,14-Tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpent-4-enyl)pentadecane per unit sediment massIP25/sedµg/gMüller, JulianeGas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
4Accumulation rate, 2,6,10,14-Tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpent-4-enyl)pentadecaneAcc rate IP25µg/cm2/kaMüller, JulianeCalculated
248 data points

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