Nomura, Ritsuo (1991): Upper Maestrichtian to Eocene benthic foraminifera in ODP Leg 121 holes. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.728944, Supplement to: Nomura, R (1991): Paleoceanography of the upper Maestrichtian to Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages at Sites 752, 753, and 754, eastern Indian Ocean. In: Weissel, J; Peirce, J; Taylor, E; et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 121, 3-29, https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.121.138.1991
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Late Maestrichtian to late Eocene bathyal benthic foraminiferal faunas at Sites 752,753, and 754 on Broken Ridge in the eastern Indian Ocean were analyzed as to their stratigraphic distribution of species to clarify the relation between faunal turnovers and paleoceanographic changes.
Based on Q-mode factor analysis, eight varimax assemblages were distinguished: the Stensioina beccariiformis assemblage in the upper Maestrichtian to upper Paleocene; the Cibicidoides hyphalus assemblage in the upper Maestrichtian; the Cibicidoides cf. pseudoperlucidus assemblage in the upper Paleocene; the Anomalinoides capitatusldanicus assemblage in the uppermost Paleocene to lower Eocene; the Cibicidoides subspiratus assemblage in the lower Eocene; the Nuttallides truempyi assemblage in the lower and middle Eocene; the Osangularia sp. 1 - Hanzawaia ammophila assemblage in the upper Eocene; and the Lenticulina spp. assemblage in the uppermost Eocene, Oligocene, and lower Miocene. The presence of the Osangularia sp. 1 - Hanzawaia ammophila assemblage is related to the shallowing episode on Broken Ridge (upper bathyal), as a result of the rifting event that occurred in the middle Eocene.
The most distinct faunal change (the disappearance of about 37% of the species) occurred between the S. beccariiformis assemblage and the A. capitatusldanicus assemblage, at the end of the upper Paleocene. A. capitatusldanicus, Lenticulina spp., and varied forms of Cibicidoides replaced the Velasco-type fauna at this time. The timing of this event is well correlated with the known age at South Atlantic sites (Thomas, 1990 doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.113.123.1990; Kennett and Stott, 1990 doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.113.188.1990; Katz and Miller, 1990 doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.114.147.1991). The primary cause of the extinction of the Stensioina beccariiformis assemblage is elusive, but may have resulted from the cessation of deep-water formation in the Antarctic (Katz and Miller, 1990), and subsequent arrival of warm saline deep water (Thomas, 1990; Kennett and Stott, 1990). Another possibility may be a weakened influence of high-salinity water formed at the low latitudes such as the Tethys Sea. The extinction event corresponds to the change from higher delta13C values in benthic foraminifers to lower ones. An interpretation of delta13C values is that the eastern Indian deep water, characterized by young and nutrient-depleted water, became old water which was devoid of a supply of new water during the latest Paleocene to early Eocene. Prior to this benthic event, signals of related faunal change were detected in the following short periods: early and late Paleocene, near the boundary of nannofossil Zone CP4, and Zone CP5 of the late Paleocene at Site 752.
Among common taxa in the upper Maestrichtian, only seven species disappeared or became extinct at the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary at Site 752. The benthic foraminiferal population did not change for up to 2 m above the boundary, in contrast to the rapid decrease of the plankt onic foraminiferal population at the boundary. A decrease in the number of benthic foraminifers occurs after that level, corresponding to an interval of decreased numbers of planktonic foraminifers and higher abundance of volcanic ash. Reduced species diversity (H') suggests a secondary effect attributable to the dissolution of foraminiferal tests. The different responses of planktonic and benthic foraminifers to the event just above the boundary suggest that the Cretaceous/Tertiary event was a surface event as also suggested by Thomas (1990). In addition, a positive shift of delta13C in benthic foraminifers after the event indicates nutrient-depleted bottom water at Site 752.
Median Latitude: -30.890275 * Median Longitude: 93.578139 * South-bound Latitude: -30.941000 * West-bound Longitude: 93.566500 * North-bound Latitude: -30.839000 * East-bound Longitude: 93.589900
Date/Time Start: 1988-05-10T03:15:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-22T12:30:00
121-752A * Latitude: -30.891000 * Longitude: 93.578000 * Date/Time Start: 1988-05-10T03:15:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-12T13:55:00 * Elevation: -1097.0 m * Penetration: 317.6 m * Recovery: 217.32 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 34 cores; 317.6 m cored; 0 m drilled; 68.4 % recovery
121-752B * Latitude: -30.891000 * Longitude: 93.577500 * Date/Time Start: 1988-05-18T09:00:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-22T12:30:00 * Elevation: -1097.0 m * Penetration: 435.6 m * Recovery: 112.34 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 17 cores; 158 m cored; 0 m drilled; 71.1 % recovery
121-753A * Latitude: -30.839000 * Longitude: 93.589900 * Date/Time Start: 1988-05-12T16:30:00 * Date/Time End: 1988-05-13T06:15:00 * Elevation: -1187.0 m * Penetration: 62.8 m * Recovery: 61.06 m * Location: South Indian Ridge, South Indian Ocean * Campaign: Leg121 * Basis: Joides Resolution * Device: Drilling/drill rig (DRILL) * Comment: 7 cores; 62.8 m cored; 0 m drilled; 97.2 % recovery