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Jenkins, Janice A; Williams, Douglas F (1984): Stable isotope analysis on planktic foraminifera in sediment cores from the eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Jenkins, JA; Williams, DF (1984): Nile water as a cause of eastern Mediterranean sapropel formation: evidence for and against. Marine Micropaleontology, 8(6), 521-534,

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During the late Pleistocene, sapropels (layers of organic-carbon rich sediment) formed throughout the entire Eastern Mediterranean Basin in close association with glacial/interglacial transitions. The current theory for the mechanism of sapropel formation involves a density stratification of the water column, due to the invasion of a large quantity of low-saline water, which resulted in oxygen depletion of the bottom waters. Most workers believe that this low-salinity water was glacial meltwater that entered the Mediterranean via the Black Sea and a series of interconnected glacial lakes, but the suggestion also has been made that the freshwater originated from the Nile River. In this study the oxygen isotope values of planktonic foraminifera,Globigerinoides ruber, have been examined in six gravity cores and one piston core from the southern Levantine Basin, and compared with the oxygen isotope records ofG. ruber from other areas of the Eastern Mediterranean. This study deals mainly with the latest sapropel which was deposited approximately 7000 to 9000 years ago. Results indicate that Nile discharge probably does reduce salinities somewhat in the immediate area surrounding the mouth of the Nile, but this water is rapidly mixed with the highly saline waters of the easternmost Mediterranean.
Using a mixing equation and surface water salinity limitations, an approximate oxygen isotope balance of surface waters was calculated for the time of latest sapropel deposition. This calculation shows that neither Nile River discharge nor Black Sea input (nor both together) are large enough to account for the large-scale oxygen isotope depletion associated with latest sapropel deposition in the Eastern Mediterranean. This suggests that part of the isotopic change at Termination I is probably due to increased surface water salinities during the last glacial maximum. In addition, evidence from the timing of sapropel 1 deposition and the dissolved oxygen balance indicates that deposition of the latest sapropel is associated with increased surface water production of biogenic material, as much as three times higher than that of present day.
Median Latitude: 33.386067 * Median Longitude: 29.658117 * South-bound Latitude: 32.380000 * West-bound Longitude: 26.015000 * North-bound Latitude: 34.346700 * East-bound Longitude: 30.930000
CH119-12PG * Latitude: 32.380000 * Longitude: 29.225000 * Elevation: -1581.0 m * Location: Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin * Campaign: CHA_UK * Basis: Challenger * Device: Gravity corer (GC)
CH119-16PG * Latitude: 33.246700 * Longitude: 30.331700 * Elevation: -2523.0 m * Location: Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin * Campaign: CHA_UK * Basis: Challenger * Device: Gravity corer (GC)
CH119-18PC * Latitude: 34.346700 * Longitude: 30.930000 * Elevation: -2484.0 m * Location: Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin * Campaign: CHA_UK * Basis: Challenger * Device: Piston corer (PC)
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